The abortion debate is the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral, legal, and religious status of induced abortion. The sides involved in the debate are the self-described "pro-choice" movement and the "pro-life" movement. "Pro-choice" emphasizes the right of women to decide whether to terminate a pregnancy. "Pro-life" movement emphasizes the right of the embryo or fetus to gestate to term and be born. Both terms are considered loaded in mainstream media, where terms such as "abortion rights" or "anti-abortion" are generally preferred. Each movement has, with varying results, sought to influence public opinion and to attain legal support for its position, with small numbers of anti-abortion advocates sometimes using violence.
For many people, abortion is essentially a moral issue, concerning the commencement of human personhood, the rights of the fetus, and a woman's rights over her own body. The debate has become a political and legal issue in some countries with anti-abortion campaigners seeking to enact, maintain and expand anti-abortion laws, while abortion rights campaigners seeking the repeal or easing of such laws while expanding access to abortion. Abortion laws vary considerably between jurisdictions, ranging from outright prohibition of the procedure to public funding of abortion. Availability of safe abortion also varies across the world.
In ancient times, abortion, along with infanticide, was considered in the context of family planning, gender selection, population control, and the property rights of the patriarch. Rarely were the rights of the prospective mother, much less the prospective child, taken into consideration. Although generally legal, the morality of abortion, birth control and child abandonment (as a form of infanticide) was sometimes discussed. Then, as now, these discussions often concerned the nature of man, the existence of a soul, when life begins, and the beginning of human personhood.
While the practice of infanticide (as a form of family planning) has largely been eradicated in developed countries, birth control and abortion are still practiced; and their morality and legality continues to be debated. While modern debates about abortion retain some of the language of these older debates, the terminology has often acquired new meanings.
Discussion of the putative personhood of the fetus may be complicated by the current legal status of children. Like children or minors in the U.S., and unlike corporations, a fetus or an embryo is not legally a "person", not having reached the age of majority and not deemed able to enter into contracts and sue or be sued. Since the 1860s, they have been treated as persons for the limited purposes of Offence against the person law in the UK including N. Ireland, although this treatment was amended by the Abortion Act of 1967 in England, Scotland and Wales. Furthermore, there are logistic difficulties in treating a fetus as "the object of direct action." As one New Jersey Superior Court judge noted,
If a fetus is a person, it is a person in very special circumstances – it exists entirely within the body of another much larger person and usually cannot be the object of direct action by another person.
Proposals in the current debate range from complete prohibition, even if done to save the woman's life, to complete legalization with public funding, as in Canada.
Many of the terms used in the debate are seen as political framing: terms used to validate one's own stance while invalidating the opposition's. For example, the labels "pro-choice" and "pro-life" imply endorsement of widely held values such as liberty or the right to life, while suggesting that the opposition must be "anti-choice" or "anti-life" (alternatively "pro-coercion" or "pro-death"). Terms used by some in the debate to describe their opponents include "pro-abortion" or "pro-abort". However, these terms do not always reflect a political view or fall along a binary; in one Public Religion Research Institute poll, seven in ten Americans described themselves as "pro-choice" while almost two-thirds described themselves as "pro-life". Another identifier in the debate is "abolitionist", which harks back to the 19th-century struggle against human slavery.
Appeals are often made in the abortion debate to the rights of the fetus, pregnant woman, or other parties. Such appeals can generate confusion if the type of rights is not specified (whether civil, natural, or otherwise) or if it is simply assumed that the right appealed to takes precedence over all other competing rights (an example of begging the question).
The appropriate terms with which to designate the human organism prior to birth are also debated. The medical terms "embryo" and "fetus" are seen by some pro-life advocates as dehumanizing, while everyday terms such as "baby" are viewed as sentimental by some pro-choice advocates.
Politics refers to the processes, defined and limited through legal documents, by which decisions (laws) are made in governments. In politics, rights are the protections and privileges legally granted to citizens by the government. In a democracy, certain rights are considered to be inalienable, and thus not subject to grant or withdrawal by government. Regarding abortion law, the political debate usually surrounds a right to privacy, and when or how a government may regulate abortion. There is abundant debate regarding the extent of abortion regulation. Some pro-choice advocates argue that it should be illegal for governments to regulate abortion any more than other medical practices. On both sides of the debate, some argue[who?] that governments should be permitted to prohibit elective abortions after the 20th week,viability, or the second trimester. Some want to prohibit all abortions, starting from conception.
Even though the right to privacy is not explicitly stated in many constitutions of sovereign nations, many people see it as foundational to a functioning democracy. In general the right to privacy can be found to rest on the provisions of habeas corpus, which first found official expression under Henry II in 11th century England, but has precedent in Anglo-Saxon law. This provision guarantees the right to freedom from arbitrary government interference, as well as due process of law. This conception of the right to privacy is operant in all countries which have adopted English common law through Acts of Reception. The Law of the United States rests on English common law by this means.
Time has stated that the issue of bodily privacy is "the core" of the abortion debate.Time defined privacy, in relation to abortion, as the ability of a woman to "decide what happens to her own body". In political terms, privacy can be understood as a condition in which one is not observed or disturbed by government.
Traditionally, American courts have located the right to privacy in the Fourth Amendment, Ninth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, as well as the penumbra of the Bill of Rights. The landmark decision Roe v Wade relied on the 14th Amendment, which guarantees that federal rights shall be applied equally to all persons born in the United States. The 14th Amendment has given rise to the doctrine of Substantive due process, which is said to guarantee various privacy rights, including the right to bodily integrity. In Canada, the courts have located privacy rights in the security of persons clause of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Section 7 of that charter echoes language used in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which also guarantees security of persons.
While governments are allowed to invade the privacy of their citizens in some cases, they are expected to protect privacy in all cases lacking a compelling state interest. In the US, the compelling state interest test has been developed in accordance with the standards of strict scrutiny. In Roe v Wade, the Court decided that the state has an "important and legitimate interest in protecting the potentiality of human life" from the point of viability on, but that prior to viability, the woman's fundamental rights are more compelling than that of the state.
U.S. judicial involvement
Main article: Abortion in the United States
Roe v. Wade struck down state laws banning abortion in 1973. Over 20 cases have addressed abortion law in the United States, all of which upheld Roe v. Wade. Since Roe, abortion has been legal throughout the country, but states have placed varying regulations on it, from requiring parental involvement in a minor's abortion to restricting late-term abortions.
Legal criticisms of the Roe decision address many points, among them are several suggesting that it is an overreach of judicial powers, or that it was not properly based on the Constitution, or that it is an example of judicial activism and that it should be overturned so that abortion law can be decided by legislatures. Justice Potter Stewart, who joined with the majority, viewed the Roe opinion as "legislative" and asked that more consideration be paid to state legislatures.
Candidates competing for the Democratic nomination for the 2008 Presidential election cited Gonzales v. Carhart as judicial activism. In upholding the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Carhart is the first judicial opinion upholding a legal barrier to a specific abortion procedure.
"Where, in the performance of its judicial duties, the Court decides a case in such a way as to resolve the sort of intensely divisive controversy reflected in Roe and those rare, comparable cases, its [505 U.S. 833, 867] decision has a dimension that the resolution of the normal case does not carry. It is the dimension present whenever the Court's interpretation of the Constitution calls the contending sides of a national controversy to end their national division by accepting a common mandate rooted in the Constitution [...W]hatever the premises of opposition may be, only the most convincing justification under accepted standards of precedent could suffice to demonstrate that a later decision overruling the first was anything but a surrender to political pressure and an unjustified repudiation of the principle on which the Court staked its authority in the first instance." — Majority opinion of Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
"Quite to the contrary, by foreclosing all democratic outlet for the deep passions this issue arouses, by banishing the issue from the political forum that gives all participants, even the losers, the satisfaction of a fair hearing and an honest fight, by continuing the imposition of a rigid national rule instead of allowing for regional differences, the Court merely prolongs and intensifies the anguish [over abortion]." — Justice Antonin Scalia, "concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in part".
Canadian judicial involvement
Main article: Abortion in Canada
With R v. Morgentaler, the Supreme Court of Canada removed abortion from the Criminal Code. Relying on the security of person clause of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the court determined that, while the state has an interest in protecting the fetus "at some point", this interest cannot override that of the pregnant woman because: "the right to security of the person of a pregnant woman was infringed more than was required to achieve the objective of protecting the fetus, and the means were not reasonable." The only laws currently governing abortion in Canada are those which govern other medical procedures, such as those regulating licensing of facilities, the training of medical personnel, and the like.
Because the courts did not specifically establish abortion as a right, Parliament has leave to legislate on this aspect of the matter; and in 1989, the Progressive Conservative government attempted to do just that. A bill was introduced that would allow abortion only if two doctors certified that the woman's health was in danger. This bill passed the House of Commons but was defeated by a tie vote in the Senate.
Several additional cases have considered further issues.
Although the courts have not ruled on the question of fetal personhood, the question has been raised in two cases, Tremblay v. Daigle and R. v. Sullivan. Both cases relied on the born alive rule, inherited from English common law, to determine that the fetus was not a person at law.
Two further cases are notable: Dobson (Litigation Guardian of) v. Dobson, and Winnipeg Child & Family Services (Northwest Area) v. G . (D.F.), [I9971 3 S.C.R. 925 M], which dismissed so-called fetal abuse charges.
Countries that refuse abortions
As of December 2016, there were 6 countries that banned abortion: El Salvador, the Vatican, Chile, Malta, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua. This bans women from an abortion for any reason (underage, fetal impairment, rape/incest), even if it might mean saving her life. All of these countries have a punishment if it is done illegally of jail time.
Countries with strict laws
Ireland only allows abortions if it is a risk to the woman's life. It is also a very expensive procedure. There are also penalties of jail time if an abortion is induced for any other reason. China has a free abortion policy but for the reason of complying with the one child policy - so many times it is forced upon them. The Philippines also only have abortions in place to save the woman's life but it is not stated in the law. This means that it is also punishable by jail time. 
Effects of legalization/illegalization
Pro-choice advocates argue that illegalization of abortion increases the incidence of unsafe abortions, as the availability of professional abortion services decreases, and leads to increased maternal mortality. According to a global study collaboratively conducted by the World Health Organization and the Guttmacher Institute, most unsafe abortions occur where abortion is illegal.
The effect on crime of legalized abortion is a subject of controversy, with proponents of the theory generally arguing that "unwanted children" are more likely to become criminals and that an inverse correlation is observed between the availability of abortion and subsequent crime.
Economist George Akerlof has argued that the legalization of abortion in the United States contributed to a declining sense of paternal duty among biological fathers and to a decline in shotgun weddings, even when women chose childbirth over abortion, and thus to an increase rather than a decrease in the rate of children born to unwed mothers.
There are differences of opinion as to whether a zygote/embryo/fetus acquires "personhood" or was always a "person". If "personhood" is acquired, opinions differ about when this happens.
Traditionally, the concept of personhood entailed the soul, a metaphysical concept referring to a non-corporeal or extra-corporeal dimension of human being which is absent in other creatures. Today, the concepts of subjectivity and intersubjectivity, personhood, mind, and self have come to encompass a number of aspects of human being previously considered the domain of the "soul". Thus, while the historical question has been: when does the soul enter the body, in modern terms, the question could be put instead: at what point does the developing individual develop personhood or selfhood.
Since the zygote is genetically identical to the embryo, the fully formed fetus, and the baby, the notion of acquired personhood could lead to an instance of the Sorites paradox, also known as the paradox of the heap.
Related issues attached to the question of the beginning of human personhood include the legal status, bodily integrity, and subjectivity of the pregnant woman and the philosophical concept of "natality" (i.e. "the distinctively human capacity to initiate a new beginning", which a new human life embodies).
In the 1973 US judgment Roe v Wade, the opinion of the justices included the following statement:
"We need not resolve the difficult question of when life begins. When those trained in the respective disciplines of medicine, philosophy, and theology are unable to arrive at any consensus, the judiciary, at this point in the development of man's knowledge, is not in a position to speculate as to the answer."
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(December 2011)
Fetal pain, its existence, and its implications are part of a larger debate about abortion. A 2005 multidisciplinary systematic review in JAMA in the area of fetal development found that a fetus is unlikely to feel pain until after the sixth month of pregnancy. Developmental neurobiologists suspect that the establishment of thalamocortical connections (at about 26 weeks) may be critical to fetal perception of pain. However, legislation was proposed by anti-abortion advocates that would require abortion providers to tell a woman that the fetus may feel pain during an abortion procedure.
The 2005 JAMA review concluded that data from dozens of medical reports and studies indicate that fetuses are unlikely to feel pain until the third trimester of pregnancy. However a number of medical critics have since disputed these conclusions. Other researchers such as Anand and Fisk have challenged the idea that pain cannot be felt before 26 weeks, positing instead that pain can be felt at around 20 weeks. Anand's suggestion is disputed in a March 2010 report on Fetal Awareness published by a working party of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, citing a lack of evidence or rationale. Page 20 of the report definitively states that the fetus cannot feel pain prior to week 24. Because pain can involve sensory, emotional and cognitive factors, leaving it "impossible to know" when painful experiences are perceived, even if it is known when thalamocortical connections are established.
Wendy Savage—press officer, Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion—considers the question to be irrelevant. In a 1997 letter to the British Medical Journal, April 1997, she noted that the majority of surgical abortions in Britain were performed under general anesthesia which affects the fetus, and considers the discussion "to be unhelpful to women and to the scientific debate." Others caution against unnecessary use of fetal anesthetic during abortion, as it poses potential health risks to the pregnant woman. David Mellor and colleagues have noted that the fetal brain is already awash in naturally occurring chemicals that keep it sedated and anesthetized until birth. At least one anesthesia researcher has suggested the fetal pain legislation may make abortions harder to obtain because abortion clinics lack the equipment and expertise to supply fetal anesthesia. Anesthesia is administered directly to fetuses only while they are undergoing surgery.
Main article: Beginning of human personhood
Although the two main sides of the abortion debate tend to agree that a human fetus is biologically and genetically human (that is, of the human species), they often differ in their view on whether or not a human fetus is, in any of various ways, a person. Pro-life supporters argue that abortion is morally wrong on the basis that a fetus is an innocent humanperson or because a fetus is a potential life that will, in most cases, develop into a fully functional human being. They believe that a fetus is a person upon conception. Others reject this position by drawing a distinction between human being and human person, arguing that while the fetus is innocent and biologically human, it is not a person with a right to life. In support of this distinction, some propose a list of criteria as markers of personhood. For example, Mary Ann Warren suggests consciousness (at least the capacity to feel pain), reasoning, self-motivation, the ability to communicate, and self-awareness. According to Warren, a being need not exhibit all of these criteria to qualify as a person with a right to life, but if a being exhibits none of them (or perhaps only one), then it is certainly not a person. Warren concludes that as the fetus satisfies only one criterion, consciousness (and this only after it becomes susceptible to pain), the fetus is not a person and abortion is therefore morally permissible. Other philosophers apply similar criteria, concluding that a fetus lacks a right to life because it lacks brain waves or higher brain function, self-consciousness, rationality, and autonomy. These lists diverge over precisely which features confer a right to life, but tend to propose various developed psychological or physiological features not found in fetuses.
Critics of this typically argue that some of the proposed criteria for personhood would disqualify two classes of born human beings – reversibly comatose patients, and human infants – from having a right to life, since they, like fetuses, are not self-conscious, do not communicate, and so on. Defenders of the proposed criteria may respond that the reversibly comatose do satisfy the relevant criteria because they "retain all their unconscious mental states". or at least some higher brain function (brain waves). Warren concedes that infants are not "persons" by her proposed criteria, and on that basis she and others, including the moral philosopher Peter Singer, conclude that infanticide could be morally acceptable under some circumstances (for example if the infant is severely disabled or in order to save the lives of several other infants.) Critics may see such concessions as an indication that the right to life cannot be adequately defined by reference to developed psychological featured.
An alternative approach is to base personhood or the right to life on a being's natural or inherent capacities. On this approach, a being essentially has a right to life if it has a natural capacity to develop the relevant psychological features; and, since human beings do have this natural capacity, they essentially have a right to life beginning at conception (or whenever they come into existence). Critics of this position argue that mere genetic potential is not a plausible basis for respect (or for the right to life), and that basing a right to life on natural capacities would lead to the counterintuitive position that anencephalic infants, irreversibly comatose patients, and brain-dead patients kept alive on a medical ventilator, are all persons with a right to life. Respondents to this criticism argue that the noted human cases in fact would not be classified as persons as they do not have a natural capacity to develop any psychological features. Also, in a view that favors benefiting even unconceived but potential future persons, it has been argued as justified to abort an unintended pregnancy in favor for conceiving a new child later in better conditions.
Philosophers such as Aquinas use the concept of individuation. They argue that abortion is not permissible from the point at which individual human identity is realized. Anthony Kenny argues that this can be derived from everyday beliefs and language and one can legitimately say "if my mother had had an abortion six months into her pregnancy, she would have killed me" then one can reasonably infer that at six months the "me" in question would have been an existing person with a valid claim to life. Since division of the zygote into twins through the process of monozygotic twinning can occur until the fourteenth day of pregnancy, Kenny argues that individual identity is obtained at this point and thus abortion is not permissible after two weeks.
Arguments for abortion rights which do not depend on fetal non-personhood
An argument first presented by Judith Jarvis Thomson states that even if the fetus is a person and has a right to life, abortion is morally permissible because a woman has a right to control her own body and its life-support functions. Thomson's variant of this argument draws an analogy between forcing a woman to continue an unwanted pregnancy and forcing a person to allow his body to be used to maintain blood homeostasis (as a dialysis machine is used) for another person suffering from kidney failure. It is argued that just as it would be permissible to "unplug" and thereby cause the death of the person who is using one's kidneys, so it is permissible to abort the fetus (who similarly, it is said, has no right to use one's body's life-support functions against one's will).
Critics of this argument generally argue that there are morally relevant disanalogies between abortion and the kidney failure scenario. For example, it is argued that the fetus is the woman's child as opposed to a mere stranger; that abortion kills the fetus rather than merely letting it die; and that in the case of pregnancy arising from voluntary intercourse, the woman has either tacitly consented to the fetus using her body, or has a duty to allow it to use her body since she herself is responsible for its need to use her body. Some writers defend the analogy against these objections, arguing that the disanalogies are morally irrelevant or do not apply to abortion in the way critics have claimed.
Alternative scenarios have been put forth as more accurate and realistic representations of the moral issues present in abortion. John Noonan proposes the scenario of a family who was found to be liable for frostbite finger loss suffered by a dinner guest whom they refused to allow to stay overnight, although it was very cold outside and the guest showed signs of being sick. It is argued that just as it would not be permissible to refuse temporary accommodation for the guest to protect him from physical harm, it would not be permissible to refuse temporary accommodation of a fetus.
Other critics claim that there is a difference between artificial and extraordinary means of preservation, such as medical treatment, kidney dialysis, and blood transfusions, and normal and natural means of preservation, such as gestation, childbirth, and breastfeeding. They argue that if a baby was born into an environment in which there was no replacement available for her mother's breast milk, and the baby would either breastfeed or starve, the mother would have to allow the baby to breastfeed. But the mother would never have to give the baby a blood transfusion, no matter what the circumstances were. The difference between breastfeeding in that scenario and blood transfusions is the difference between using your body as a kidney dialysis machine, and gestation and childbirth.
Sexual emancipation and equality
Margaret Sanger wrote: "No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother." Denying the right to abortion can be construed from this perspective as a form of female oppression under a patriarchal system, perpetuating inequality between the sexes.
Arguments against the right to abortion
The book Abortion and the Conscience of the Nation presents the argument that abortion involves unjust discrimination against the unborn. According to this argument, those who deny that fetuses have a right to life do not value all human life, but instead select arbitrary characteristics (such as particular levels of physical or psychological development) as giving some human beings more value or rights than others.
In contrast, philosophers who define the right to life by reference to particular levels of physical or psychological development typically maintain that such characteristics are morally relevant, and reject the assumption that all human life necessarily has value (or that membership in the species Homo sapiens is in itself morally relevant).
Further information: Philosophical aspects of the abortion debate § The deprivation argument
The argument of deprivation states that abortion is morally wrong because it deprives the fetus of a valuable future. On this account, killing an adult human being is wrong because it deprives the victim of a future like ours—a future containing highly valuable or desirable experiences, activities, projects, and enjoyments. If a being has such a future, then (according to the argument) killing that being would seriously harm it and hence would be seriously wrong. But since a fetus does have such a future, the "overwhelming majority" of deliberate abortions are placed in the "same moral category" as killing an innocent adult human being. Not all abortions are unjustified according to this argument: abortion would be justified if the same justification could be applied to killing an adult human.
Criticism of this line of reasoning follows several threads. Some reject the argument on grounds relating to personal identity, holding that the fetus is not the same entity as the adult into which it will develop, and thus that the fetus does not have a "future like ours" in the required sense. Others grant that the fetus has a future like ours, but argue that being deprived of this future is not a significant harm or a significant wrong to the fetus, because there are relatively few psychological connections (continuations of memory, belief, desire and the like) between the fetus as it is now and the adult into which it will develop. Another criticism is that the argument creates inequalities in the wrongness of killing: as the futures of some people appear to be far more valuable or desirable than the futures of other people, the argument appears to entail that some killings are far more wrong than others, or that some people have a far stronger right to life than others—a conclusion that is taken to be counterintuitive or unacceptable.
Argument from uncertainty
Some pro-life supporters argue that if there is uncertainty as to whether the fetus has a right to life, then having an abortion is equivalent to consciously taking the risk of killing another. According to this argument, if it is not known for certain whether something (such as the fetus) has a right to life, then it is reckless, and morally wrong, to treat that thing as if it lacks a right to life (for example by killing it). This would place abortion in the same moral category as manslaughter (if it turns out that the fetus has a right to life) or certain forms of criminal negligence (if it turns out that the fetus does not have a right to life).
David Boonin replies that if this kind of argument were correct, then the killing of nonhuman animals and plants would also be morally wrong, because (Boonin contends) it is not known for certain that such beings lack a right to life. Boonin also argues that arguments from uncertainty fail because the mere fact that one might be mistaken in finding certain arguments persuasive (for example, arguments for the claim that the fetus lacks a right to life) does not mean that one should act contrary to those arguments or assume them to be mistaken.
Main article: Religion and abortion
Each religion has many varying views on the moral implications of abortion. These views can often be in direct opposition to each other. Muslims regard abortion as haram meaning forbidden. Muslims typically cite the Quranic verse 17:31 which states that a fetus shouldn't be aborted out of fear of poverty. Pro-life Christians support their views with Scripture references such as that of Luke 1:15; Jeremiah 1:4–5; Genesis 25:21–23; Matthew 1:18; and Psalm 139:13–16. The Catholic Church believes that human life begins at conception as does the right to life; thus, abortion is considered immoral. The Church of England also considers abortion to be morally wrong, though their position admits abortion when "the continuance of a pregnancy threatens the life of the mother".
Mexico City policy
Main article: Mexico City policy
The Mexico City policy—also known as the "global gag rule"—required any non-governmental organization receiving U.S. government funding to refrain from performing or promoting abortion services in other countries. This had a significant effect on the health policies of many nations across the globe. The Mexico City policy was instituted under President Reagan, suspended under President Clinton, reinstated by President George W. Bush, and suspended again by President Barack Obama on 24 January 2009 and re-instated once again by President Donald J. Trump on 23 January 2017.
Main article: Societal attitudes towards abortion
A number of opinion polls around the world have explored public opinion regarding the issue of abortion. Results have varied from poll to poll, country to country, and region to region, while varying with regard to different aspects of the issue.
A May 2005 survey examined attitudes toward abortion in 10 European countries, asking respondents whether they agreed with the statement, "If a woman doesn't want children, she should be allowed to have an abortion". The highest level of approval was 81% (in the Czech Republic); the lowest was 47% (in Poland).
In North America, a December 2001 poll surveyed Canadian opinion on abortion, asking in what circumstances they believe abortion should be permitted; 32% responded that they believe abortion should be legal in all circumstances, 52% that it should be legal in certain circumstances, and 14% that it should be legal in no circumstances. A similar poll in April 2009 surveyed people in the United States about U.S. opinion on abortion; 18% said that abortion should be "legal in all cases", 28% said that abortion should be "legal in most cases", 28% said abortion should be "illegal in most cases" and 16% said abortion should be "illegal in all cases". A November 2005 poll in Mexico found that 73.4% think abortion should not be legalized while 11.2% think it should.
Of attitudes in South America, a December 2003 survey found that 30% of Argentines thought that abortion in Argentina should be allowed "regardless of situation", 47% that it should be allowed "under some circumstances", and 23% that it should not be allowed "regardless of situation". A more recent poll now suggest that 45% of Argentineans are in favor of abortion for any reason in the first twelve weeks. This same poll conducted in September 2011 also suggests that most Argentineans favor abortion being legal when a woman's health or life is at risk (81%), when the pregnancy is a result of rape (80%) or the fetus has severe abnormalities (68%). A March 2007 poll regarding the abortion law in Brazil found that 65% of Brazilians believe that it "should not be modified", 16% that it should be expanded "to allow abortion in other cases", 10% that abortion should be "decriminalized", and 5% were "not sure". A July 2005 poll in Colombia found that 65.6% said they thought that abortion should remain illegal, 26.9% that it should be made legal, and 7.5% that they were unsure.
Effect upon crime rate
Main article: Legalized abortion and crime effect
A theory attempts to draw a correlation between the United States' unprecedented nationwide decline of the overall crime rate during the 1990s and the decriminalization of abortion 20 years prior.
The suggestion was brought to widespread attention by a 1999 academic paper, The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime, authored by the economists Steven D. Levitt and John Donohue. They attributed the drop in crime to a reduction in individuals said to have a higher statistical probability of committing crimes: unwanted children, especially those born to mothers who are African American, impoverished, adolescent, uneducated, and single. The change coincided with what would have been the adolescence, or peak years of potential criminality, of those who had not been born as a result of Roe v. Wade and similar cases. Donohue and Levitt's study also noted that states which legalized abortion before the rest of the nation experienced the lowering crime rate pattern earlier, and those with higher abortion rates had more pronounced reductions.
Fellow economists Christopher Foote and Christopher Goetz criticized the methodology in the Donohue-Levitt study, noting a lack of accommodation for statewide yearly variations such as cocaine use, and recalculating based on incidence of crime per capita; they found no statistically significant results. Levitt and Donohue responded to this by presenting an adjusted data set which took into account these concerns and reported that the data maintained the statistical significance of their initial paper.
Such research has been criticized by some as being utilitarian, discriminatory as to race and socioeconomic class, and as promoting eugenics as a solution to crime. Levitt states in his book Freakonomics that they are neither promoting nor negating any course of action—merely reporting data as economists.
Breast cancer hypothesis
Main article: Abortion–breast cancer hypothesis
The abortion–breast cancer hypothesis posits that induced abortion increases the risk of developing breast cancer. This position contrasts with the scientific consensus that abortion does not cause breast cancer.
In early pregnancy, levels of estrogen increase, leading to breast growth in preparation for lactation. The hypothesis proposes that if this process is interrupted by an abortion – before full maturity in the third trimester – then more relatively vulnerable immature cells could be left than there were prior to the pregnancy, resulting in a greater potential risk of breast cancer. The hypothesis mechanism was first proposed and explored in rat studies conducted in the 1980s.
Main article: Minors and abortion
Many states require some form of parental consent before the abortion is set to happen. In the United States, 37 states require the parent to have knowledge while only 21 of those states need one parent to consent. Certain states have an alternative answer to the involvement of the parent by getting the judicial system involved with a judicial bypass. In those states, minors can get permission from the judge if parents are not willing to do so or if they are absent from their lives. 
These laws are known as parental involvement laws.
There are different guidelines to minors and abortions in every country.
- ^Groome, Thomas. "To Win Again, Democrats Must Stop Being the Abortion Party."New York Times. 27 March 2017. 27 March 2017.
- ^For example: "Wall Street Journal style guide: Vol. 23, No. 1". Wall Street Journal. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- ^See generally, "The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance", John Boswell ISBN 978-0-226-06712-4 Nov 1998, Intro.
- ^See generally Spivack, Carla, To Bring Down the Flowers: The Cultural Context of Abortion Law in Early Modern England. Available at SSRN:  Introduction
- ^Rodham, Hillary (1973). "Children under the law". Harvard Educational Review. 43 (4): 487–514. doi:10.17763/haer.43.4.e14676283875773k.
- ^"The law and ethics of abortion"(PDF). BMA Views, Ethics Department. British Medical Association. 2014.
- ^State v Loce September 6, 1991
- ^"Sister Margaret's Choice" 27 May 2010
- ^Christine Ammer; JoAnn E. Manson (February 2009). The Encyclopedia of Women's Health. Infobase Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8160-7407-5. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^Holstein and Gubrium (2008). Handbook of Constructionist Research. Guilford Press.
- ^"Committed to Availability, Conflicted about Morality: What the Millennial Generation Tells Us about the Future of the Abortion Debate and the Culture Wars". Public Religion Research Institute. 9 June 2011.
- ^Andrea Grimes (11 April 2014). "Portrait of an Anti-Abortion 'Abolitionist'". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ^Irin Carmon (8 March 2014). "Meet the rebels of the anti-abortion movement". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ^Brennan 'Dehumanizing the vulnerable' 2000
- ^Getek, Kathryn; Cunningham, Mark (February 1996). "A Sheep in Wolf's Clothing – Language and the Abortion Debate". Princeton Progressive Review.
- ^"Abortion". Positions. British Columbia Civil Liberties Association. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
ABORTION ESSAY WRITING GUIDE
December 22, 2016>
Abortion is a rather popular topic of discussion. It is a rather sensitive and arguable subject and, therefore, it has a great variety of forms of debate on the issue, as well as various types of essays on it. This article is devoted to the comprehensive reviewing of different types of essays on the topic and providing the reader with relevant information on the most popular types of essays on abortion, including the description of each type, structure, outline, instructions, examples and other useful information.
Argumentative essay on Abortion
An argumentative essay implies establishing a certain position on a chosen, often controversial topic, and persuading the audience with help of pieces of evidence and facts supporting a certain point of view. Firstly, there should be done some research on several sides of the argument in order to collect certain facts, statements of experts, and statistics to support the chosen stance. These steps should be carefully considered before working on the outline of a future essay. When topic and fundamental position on the topic are chosen, the writer should put together an outline in order to substantiate his/her point of view with a sophisticated structure of the essay. The outline should comprise an introduction, a thesis, several pieces of evidence for each argument, refutation of the opposing viewpoint, and conclusion. The structure of the argumentative essay is rather clear, but still, you may have many questions on how to write an argumentative essay about abortion.
It is a rather sensitive topic with polar opinions on abortion itself. Some people reckon it’s a crime, and other consider it to be a free choice of each person. The most significant part of the writing is not to make some statements, but make a research on each and every statement and back up these arguments by facts and pieces of evidence. However, the first step to start from would be defining the topic. Basically, there is plenty of possible topics regarding this theme, but most of them usually come down to one issue on either side. Argumentative essay topics on abortion highlight the problem in terms of pro-life arguments (against this procedure), and pro-choice arguments (for legalization). While doing a thorough research, it is required to dig through opinions of professionals and recent statistics. It is important to be absolutely objective while writing this type of essay; you cannot just think out a fact or evidence which are not backed up by grounded research or a recognized expert. You should consider both aspects of the controversial topic and put the essay together so that it is highlighted in terms of two opposite opinions at a time. Such essays should include arguments in support of one side of the issue in conjunction with opposite opinion on this topic.
For instance, in the argumentative essay on why abortion should be illegal, the writer should make emphasis on four to five basic arguments, strengthened by facts and pieces of evidence. Taking a position on pro-life arguments, you can state that fetuses are human beings and are capable of feeling pain, and later support this statement with numerous pieces of evidence. The 4d scans, in this case, can serve as a proof, and if you look at snapshots, you can notice that after 12 weeks, fetuses are formed human beings, they have eyes and fingers, heart and a nervous system. By 8 weeks’ gestation period, a fetus can already flex its spine, which can indicate that it is already able to feel pain because the nervous system is already formed for it.
This argument should be followed by three or four strong corresponding arguments; for example, the second argument could be that this procedure can evoke medical complications and psychological trauma for women, and the third point can be religious responsibility; the fourth can defend human rights. You can divide your paper into four or five equal parts and just fill in the sections with the necessary content. You can put these arguments in the outline for argumentative essay on abortion in advance, in order to mitigate the writing process. Along with the arguments, which are the main body of the essay, the outline comprises introduction that gives a short information about the topic you work on and a thesis on this topic that come before the main body. If the topic is “Why abortion should be illegal”, introduce the issue in general, write a bit about it and explain your position in thesis by saying why you think that it should be illegal.
For example, it should be illegal, because fetus is a human being, and this procedure can be viewed as a murder. All this should be mentioned in the introduction paragraph for abortion essay. After introducing a general information on the topic and a certain thesis on the issue, you can start presenting the abovementioned arguments and continue with the refutation of opposing views. In this case, you should write why you think those who claim that it should be legal are wrong. For example, you can provide a couple of counterarguments of the opposite point of view. In this case, you can say that there are cases of unwanted pregnancy, but there are many families who struggle with a misery of infertility, who are willing to adopt a child. This will make your essay credible and objective because you will acknowledge the opposite arguments and mentioning them will make your statements even stronger.
After the main body is completed, you can start finalizing your argumentative essay on abortion. Conclusion should summarize all given arguments and counterarguments and leave readers with something to think about. For example, you can weigh out and assess all the particular cases and possible exceptions, when it might be an option to find way out of a really heartbreaking and difficult situation, and mention that these cases are not considered in this discussion, focus on the easy access to the discussed procedure and try putting doubt in the necessity of making it a fundamental human right. The same structure of the essay can be used in an argumentative essay on why abortion should be legal. Before starting to write about the topic in terms of pro-choice arguments, try to investigate the subject again and conduct a thorough research of the existing reliable sources, including articles, books, experts’ opinions, statistical data, historical reviews of the problem, facts, etc. Make sure that you have enough pieces of evidence to support your position and enough counterarguments to refute the opposite point of view. In order to organize the information, you have to compose an abortion essay outline. You may again recollect that there should be an introduction, in which you can mention that it should be a legal option for everyone, because nobody has right to interfere with someone’s life decisions, that illegal procedures will take place regardless the government’s provision and can result in more problems, and other corresponding ideas supporting abortion. Introduction paragraph may be followed by the pro-choice arguments, which are to be presented in the main body. Two opposite views of the issue should collide and they both should reflect the existing problems in terms of religion, law, morality, medicine, demography, human rights, and personal choice. You can write that fetuses are not yet human beings, that government has no right to decide anything related to the women’s bodies, that it is dangerous to make it illegal as it will provoke making this procedure by amateurs, and it can result in numerous deaths of women, etc.
You are welcome to continue your essay with the abortion counter arguments based on the opponents’ views. It is a really complicated question for discussion as it involves different aspects of life. A lot of factors should be taken into consideration while taking a decision about the age of the women, their financial stability and stability in their relationships. This encompasses certain layers of society: teenagers, unmarried and poor women. Morality is a subject of personal interpretation, and there can be different points of view in terms of morality regarding this issue. There are also many illnesses that may lead to birth defects, and such maternal illnesses can also be reviewed in your essay. Heart and kidney diseases, severe diabetes and other illnesses in conjunction with pregnancy and delivery can lead to irreversible complications and even death of a newborn. You can sum up all the above mentioned facts in conclusion for abortion essay. According to statistics, 51% of parents used contraceptives, but nevertheless, women got pregnant. It is significant to mention that there are cases of rape or incest, and women have no desire to give birth to unwanted children.
Basically, an argumentative essay should consist of pros and cons of your assertion on the debating issue. A good essay should combine different elements that will convince everybody to perceive the subject from your perspective. And it is significant to have strong arguments on the opposite point of view to parry it effectively. It is the essay in which you give arguments for and against abortion. We have also prepared the following plan you can stick to when working on your essay:The Pro-Con pattern should consist of introduction, pro-point 1 + support, pro-point 2 + support, con point + refutation, and conclusion.
- The Con-Pro pattern should contain: introduction, con-point + refutation, pro-point 1 + support, pro-point 2 + support, and conclusion.
- 3-Con pattern: introduction, con-point 1 + refutation, con-point 2 + refutation, con-point 3 + refutation, conclusion. All these three patterns are recommended for short argumentative essay on abortion.
- Claim/Counterclaim pattern. It consists of the introduction, two parts of the main body and conclusion. The first part includes three parts with counterclaim points with refutations, and the second part with three claim points and supporting arguments. The paper should include introduction, counterclaim (cc) point 1 + refutation, cc 2 + refutation, cc 3 + refutation, claim point 1 + support, claim point 2 + support, claim point 3 + support, and conclusion.
- Alternating pattern: introduction, three body parts (claim point 1 + support, counterclaim point 1 + support), and conclusion.
The last two patterns are intended for advanced college writing and are not recommended for a short argumentative essay on abortion. Don’t forget to support your opinion with facts, logical explanations and well-known experts’ opinions. It is also important to distinguish the notions to refute (prove that the point is incorrect) and to rebut (prove that the point is irrelevant or not strong enough) them. You can use both methods to parry the counterclaim. Before submitting your paper, you should make sure that it is completed correctly not only in terms of structure but that it also complies with all necessary requirements: title page, formatting style, citations and references, spelling and grammar. Even though you now have a comprehensive description of how to write an argumentative essay on abortion, you may still need more additional information about it. Maybe you will need some ready works to start your own research or for comparison to make sure that you composed your paper correctly.
For this purpose, you can search for the materials online or call upon the assistance of mates or professionals. There is no need to think out something that is not already represented on the web, and you definitely don’t need to reinvent the wheel. You can easily find an argumentative essay on abortion sample and compose your own in accordance with the already existing material. If you dig into the debating issue, you will find out a wide range of claims and counterclaims regarding it. And maybe the hardest part of writing will be taking a certain stand on the matter. For example, if you take a glance on the problem from a distance in terms of different countries and decades, different social layers and life circumstances, it will be even harder to provide the final assertion. For instance, abortion is legalized only in 30 countries of the world, and other countries restrict or partially allow abortion. There are many historical, social, legal, religious, moral, medical peculiarities and aspects that can be discussed in this kind of paper, and examples of argumentative essays on abortion can become a good guide if you are given a task to write a paper on this topic.
Such examples can give a certain direction and indicate the right steps to the proper highlighting of the debating issue. They can be helpful in reviewing the issue from the perspective of multidimensional and complex discussion, covering the holistic picture of the problem. They can show some questions that can be mentioned in the paper and can become of interest to the audience. You can easily find free argumentative essays on abortion on the Internet. However, due to the modern technologies, it becomes even a hard task to miss any necessary facts, opinions of experts and logical explanations. One may need to make an effort not to notice a corresponding information. Sometimes, it is not the lack of information, but the lack of time that plays a major role in the process of writing.
Therefore, there is a great variety of different materials on the web that may provide you with a great scope of new information on the subject. You can easily find free argumentative essays on abortion that can save your time in research and make your own writing full of bright and up-to-date pieces of evidence, facts, opinions of well-known authorities and logical explanations. Sometimes, it is more effective to invest your time in the reviewing of already completed papers in order to systemize your own thoughts about the debating issue, to look at the problem holistically and to find the necessary strategy of the upcoming work. No matter what position you have taken, you can find argumentative essay on abortion examples on both opinions with equally powerful arguments. Surely, you can dedicate your time and effort to reading books and articles in scientific papers. But on the other hand, to save your time, you can just check the reliability of the sources provided in already written papers and confidently use the rendered information.
Argumentative essay examples on abortion can come in handy at every stage of the writing process. With help of examples, you can compare your final paper and check if there is something else to be mentioned, whether you’ve missed some strong arguments to maximally get close to the full and objective picture of the problem. For example, some good points are mental and physical illnesses of potential mothers, genetic diseases of the fetus, countries where giving birth is heavily controlled by government and having more than two children is strongly discouraged, personal responsibility of each adult, potential risk of infertility after abortion procedure, etc. An argumentative essay on pros and cons of abortion should be elaborated, the arguments should be reasonable, evidence has to be solid, statistic data needs to be accurate, all expert opinions are to be recognized, sources must be reliable, and all logical explanations should be consequent.
Our tips on how to write an argumentative essay about abortion
TIP 1 – Search
Before you start writing an argumentative essay on abortion, the most important thing you should do is search for information. If you are about to open a new tab, stop for a moment and think about the books, articles in scientific papers and another kind of reliable sources that can be used. Even though it takes more time to find the information there, you can be sure that it is not made up. Afterward, you will be able to understand what kind of information from the Internet is not a complete fiction.
TIP 2- Don’t rush
Do you think you have gathered all the information you need and you are ready to write? The answer is a huge NO. Your desire to start writing is a good sign but be sure that you understand the concept of your future essay. Look through the notes and you will totally find at least a few that you don’t need or that were accidentally duplicated. Also, reading the material again may give you an idea of intro you want or will motivate you to do more searching.
TIP 3 – Strong intro.
It is always hard to start writing an argumentative essay. You want the words to lie perfectly on the paper and actually make sense, but sometimes (ok, let’s stop lying, almost every single time) you feel like a five-year-old trying to write a dissertation. Just face the fact: staring at the blank paper as if you have never seen one before will not help. Look at the first sentence of this article. Now you can legally steal it to start your paper. Add some information about political and moral aspects of the question. Try to avoid writing anything about religion and its role in a variety of disputes around the topic at first, as this may annoy some readers. You can always get to it later if you have such a need. Anyway, do your best to ensure the reader that you are taking this topic seriously. One of the best ways to do this is bringing up the statistics. Try to find a trustworthy source that will give you some real numbers and make it look interesting and convincing in the essay.
TIP 4 – Facts, facts and even more facts.
As in every essay, there are two opposite sides, and you need to describe both of them with no bias. Note that it is an argumentative essay, so clean your mind and try to remember only solid facts. Even if you don’t like the argument, because it proves the point of view you do not support, don’t try and twist it, as that will only show your unprofessional approach.
TIP 5 – Apply your knowledge
As you can now produce two completely different points of view, it is time to start writing the heart of an argumentative essay – the main part. This tip includes a lot of information, so read carefully.
Let’s start this part of an argumentative essay on abortion with pro-choice. This is when you need to look at a question from a point of view of a pregnant woman. Most of the resources suggest “my body – my choice” to be the strongest argument ever. But be careful writing this as there is an answer that can knock you out at once – the fetus is not actually your body. It is better to start with some medical facts about why pregnancy termination can or should be legal. Don’t be afraid to support your arguments with the actual numbers, but try not to cross the line, when there is only some raw statistics. Here are the most common situations, when a woman either wants or needs to have an abortion:
- There is a high risk of death while giving birth either for the woman or the fetus. Note that reasons may vary: sicknesses, traumas, etc.
- The fetus might have a genetic disease or any other anomaly, so that it will suffer after the birth.
- The woman was raped or it was incest. In both of the cases woman suffers a high level of stress and giving birth will definitely not reduce it.
- Mental illness. A mentally ill person cannot take a proper care of a baby or give birth safely. Besides, the disease can be passed to the child.
- The woman is too young to be a parent, has no financial resources or the child is unwanted. If she gives birth, there is a high possibility that a child will end up being uneducated, with no opportunities for the future, in jail or even dead at the early age.
- A fetus becomes an actual person when it has an independent body. This is one of the arguments that proves abortion is not a murder.
- A fetus will not feel pain if removed early (mainly, if a woman uses pills or any other non-surgical methods), so it’s only about the woman to choose.
- Women can get pregnant even using contraceptives. So it is not about her being irresponsible.
- Population control. Well, it is a common fact that the world is overpopulated, so there is no need to make the situation worse. This argument sounds pretty rude, even though it is true, but still be careful on this one.
This list is just an example, as it does not cover the wide range of arguments that may be given. Hopefully, everything above is pretty understandable so let’s get to the next part of our argumentative essay that is against abortion aka pro-life. It is important to understand that now you need to look at the situation differently, which is considering a murder. If you want to get more into it, try to read the stories of abortion survivors, they may not change your mind if you are pro-choice, but you will definitely shed a tear.
You may use a similar advice here regarding medicine and statistics. Therefore, here are the examples of the pro-life arguments:
- Serious risks during and after procedure: bleeding, damage of cervix or a womb, ectopic pregnancy and even infertility.
- Abortion is a serious stress for a woman’s body and mind. Firstly, many of them regret not giving a birth, and that usually results in depression. Also, there is a higher possibility to get a breast cancer after aborting a baby.
- Many families want to have children but have problems conceiving it. A woman may not abort a baby but give it for adoption so other people can care about it.
- Many women are just being irresponsible by not using contraception. This is a very unfortunate fact, but in many cases, women abort babies just because they don’t use anything to protect themselves from getting pregnant.
- Baby feels the pain while being aborted. There is no common opinion in how many weeks exactly baby starts feeling pain and no doctor will give you the right answer, but when aborted late – it certainly does.
- Baby is alive inside the mother, so as every being it has its rights. If killing a small child or even kicking a pregnant woman in a stomach is a crime, then why it is ok to kill a child that is growing and functioning with a help of his mother?
- In most religions, abortion is a huge sin. This argument is weak if thrown into the atheist’s face, but in other cases, it is pretty effective.
- Aborting a baby is a proof, that human life means nothing. That is where you can turn on your inner philosopher and think deeply about this, but try to stick to the topic.
TIP 6 – Choose the side.
This is the part, where you have enough information to decide whether you are pro-choice or pro-life. Usually, before you even start writing, you know what side you are on. However, in the very beginning, when you just search for the information, you can find the material you have never seen before, and it may completely change your mind and make you rethink many controversial questions that you have had. So at this point, try to be sure which opinion you really support. You may want to reread what you have written so far to understand the choice you make. As you are close to finishing your argumentative essay, be precise about what you want to say. Make reader understand exactly why you support this side. Don’t mention every argument from the main part of an essay, bring something special and original into the explanation.
Persuasive essay on Abortion
Persuasive essay is an essay where you try to convince everybody who reads the paper that a certain idea, which is discussed in it, is absolutely right. It is your opinion on a particular subject that you believe is 100% right. For example, you may want to persuade your boss to raise your salary or to be promoted. It is very useful to enhance your ability to prove your stance, to persuade a reader to take your side or even to change his/her point of view. The task is to show a topic from another angle, so that a reader could change his/her opinion.
Persuasive essays on abortion can highlight the topic from two main sides. In order to start writing it, you should define the position you take on a chosen subject. Decide on the thesis that will perfectly match your arguments. It should be a strong stance expressed in a short assertion, which comes down to one sentence. For example, after making a thorough research on the issue, after checking a variety of reliable sources, opinions of experts and statistical data, you may decide that it is a bad idea, and later you can decide to write a persuasive essay on why abortion should be illegal. As a thesis, you can write that it should be illegal because a fetus is a human being, and it is considered to be a murder, and therefore, abortion is a crime.
When writing this type of an essay, start each paragraph with a mini-thesis statement. It will make your paper cohesive and will support your position accordingly, making it stronger with every paragraph. It is not only important to have your own opinion on the issue, but also to be able to express your beliefs consequently and professionally. Therefore, it is important to know how to write a persuasive essay on abortion correctly. It is important to be objective while writing this type of an essay, to support your claims with real stories, facts, logical explanations, etc. More than that, is if of an exceptional importance to be honest in your essay. Substantiate your arguments with evidence, acknowledging and refuting counterarguments. Pick a couple of ideas defending your opinion and try to persuade a reader that you are right, supplement your arguments with the refutation of a counterargument.
For example, in a 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, there will be one paragraph for introduction, two for claims supported by facts and pieces of evidence, one for the refutation of the counterclaim, and the last paragraph will include a conclusion. It is well-known that there are seven main methods of the induced abortion. Each of them depends on the development of the fetus in the womb. Describe every technique. This could be a good way to introduce the problem to the reader in terms of inhumanity and brutality in the beginning of your paper after you write an introduction for persuasive essay on abortion. Provide the reader with the abovementioned thesis on the issue and proceed to writing next paragraphs which support it with claims followed by pieces of evidence and facts. The following part of the main body can describe a fetus in terms of its affiliation to humanity. Starting from six weeks, it feels pain, from eight weeks it already has fingerprints, after three months the body systems are formed and start functioning. The fetus can hear, sense, sleep, wake up and taste.
The following part of the essay can show the problem from a different angle, in terms of religion, for example. Writing a persuasive essay on abortion is a big challenge, but nevertheless, you can still try to find solid pieces of evidence on the issue in terms of your opinion. The Bible says “You shall not murder”. As the fetus is considered to be a human being, you can use this statement to explain your beliefs against termination of pregnancy. To make it more credible, it should definitely contain some counterarguments and their refutation. It will show that you acknowledge the other side of the issue and take into account the opposing beliefs, not only blindly describing your position and thinking that it is the only possible one.
This is one of the points that distinguish a good persuasive essay on abortion from a bad one. State the counterclaim and refute it. For instance, according to statistics, the most frequent cases of this procedure originate from poverty, negative relationships with partners, and young age. And, you may agree that these life circumstances are considered to be at least hard to combine with an idea of a happy future for the child and its’ mother. But still, it is a rather dangerous surgical interference which can lead to health complications and infertility. There is a risk to make it the last chance to give birth to a child.
Persuasive essay against abortion is designed to persuade the audience, and, therefore, it should be written firmly as you should sound like a real expert. It is also important to mention that from the very beginning, in case the topic was not given to you and you had to develop it yourself, you should take into account that it should be appealing to you. You should be able to argue convincingly on this topic and take into account all opposing opinions. If you reckon that there are no opposite viewpoints on the topic, it means that the topic you’ve chosen is not controversial enough to write a good persuasive essay about abortion. At the same time, if you think that there are too many counterarguments that will be complicated to refute, it would be better to choose another topic. If you want to write a good essay, make sure to dig into persuasive essay topics on abortion and find the most appropriate ones, which will be controversial enough.
This kind of an essay should be relatively short, and as it was mentioned above, it should consist of approximately 5 paragraphs and several pages. Imagine that you have already written the main part of the essay including introduction and 3 main paragraphs, but how to end a persuasive essay on abortion? The conclusion is where you get your ideas together. Here you can list the most compelling arguments and appeal to emotions. In this part of the essay you can expand your statements to a broader meaning, explain why this opinion is important for you, what other issues does this opinion evoke, and what should those who read your essay do after reading it.
A persuasive essay on abortion is a complicated assignment because abortion is a rather sensitive issue to argue about, and you clarify all details you have decided to mention in your essay. You should be sure that you are positioning your point of view clearly enough for understanding, and your opinion should be precise and unambiguous. You should also recheck several times whether your opinion is supported by facts, evidence, logical explanations, experts’ points of views, statistical data or real stories from life. The idea should flow throughout the text coherently. Each paragraph should be connected to one main idea. The counterarguments should be objectively analyzed and persuasively refuted.
Also, it is important to mention that persuasive essay on abortion conclusion should express the importance of your opinion and encourage the reader to take a certain action or start thinking in a certain way. One of the most important parts of writing is a revision. It means that you are supposed to check the text for stylistic and grammatical mistakes, and make sure that everything sounds logically. Maybe you may want to add a new paragraph or rearrange parts of the text body; it is possible that you may want to remove some unconvincing pieces of evidence and replace them with stronger facts.
Even if it is a short persuasive essay on abortion, it still has to sound convincing, stylistically and grammatically correct, as the purpose of this type of paper is to convince everyone that only your opinion on the issue is correct. When you defend the side that speaks out against this interference, you can and should appeal to emotions and credibility as well as to logic (facts, statistics, logical explanations). Your position should be known upfront.
It relates to persuasive speeches against abortion as well. Make an outline for your speech or essay before writing any text. As you now can see, this type of essay or speech has a very clear format. It contains several main elements, which divide the paper into several parts and help to describe your opinion in a clear and convincing way. The outline for a persuasive essay on abortion contains an introduction, where you represent your thesis, body paragraphs that are supposed to focus on one main idea and introduce evidence to support this idea and provide the refutation of opposing arguments, and conclusion. The conclusion should be tied up with the whole text in general, and with each paragraph in particular, summarizing all the information introduced, in terms of the chosen position.
While preparing the abortion persuasive speech outline, make sure to pose a few questions and try to answer them when writing the draft of the speech. Include statistical data on the quantity of abortions performed each year, list all countries that allow termination of pregnancy, mention specific details of the surgical procedure, and assess its safety. Describe the consequences of such interference including long-term and short-term effects. Focus on stages of fetus development and try to investigate the problem of human rights from this point of view. Persuasive speech on abortion should address matters concerning allowing abortions in different countries and cultures at different times and at different stages of gestation. Try to distinguish a matter of free will and necessity. Highlight the preconditions when it may become necessary in terms of medicine, psychological, mental health and life-circumstances. Persuasive essays on abortion should introduce convincing evidence and facts, based on statistics, history, opinions of experts, logical explanations and real life stories. It should persuasively highlight the chosen topic, and its’ thesis in conjunction with the refutation of counterarguments. Stay objective and stick to the facts, appealing to emotions from time to time.
There are a lot of persuasive articles on abortion on the Internet. They can become very helpful in your research on the topic. You can boldly refer to them as well as to other reliable sources of information, such as those mentioned above. In order to illustrate the process of writing this type of paper, it would be reasonable to give a short example of a persuasive essay on abortion.
Abortion is the practice of termination of pregnancy by the removal of the human fetus from the womb. It was forbidden in the United States of America until the well-known court case that took place in 1973, and today it is known as Roe v. Wade case. Roe was the first pregnant woman who won the case, and since then, abortion became legal. Even though a numerous amount of pregnancy termination procedures has been performed since its’ legislation in the U.S., the debate whether it should have been approved is still rather hot and many citizens of the United States continue discussing legalization of abortion. Their opinions are polarized into two main groups: pro-choice and pro-life. The Pro-choice argument is that abortion must be legal, and there should be no interference of the government, and the pro-life argument is that fetus is a human being from the moment of conception, and it is wrong to resort to the abortion in terms of human rights, law, and morality. However, some people claim that abortion must be legal as the fetus is not a human being yet.
Humanity has practiced the termination of pregnancy since ancient times. However, there is no mention of abortion law. Today, the procedure is legal in many countries; it is allowed to perform it on the basis of a woman’s request only, without specifying the reasons for the operation in 29% of all countries. Among the approved reasons are preserving physical and mental health (more than 60% of countries support it), if the pregnancy is a result of incest or rape, it is allowed to terminate it in more than half of the countries, 34% of the countries allow it if women are in poor economic or social conditions. However, it is allowed in 97% of the countries in terms of salvation of a maternal life. At the same time, Stuart W.G. claimed that a fetus is not able to feel pain, and at the early stages of pregnancy, it is just a clump of cells. So is it really a human being?
Bridget, a woman who was pregnant once, found out that her son will never be able to live as a full-fledged human being because of the congenital disease. The legislation of abortion gives her a choice to decide whether or not her son should be born and live with severe medical problems incompatible with life and whether he should suffer during his lifetime.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that it is a rather sensitive issue that leaves nobody indifferent. However, the debate on it continues to leave the opinion on it uncertain and divided, mostly when it comes to the economic, social, personal reasons, which are considered by many to be insubstantial. However, there are specific circumstances that may cause women from all over the world to resort to the termination of pregnancy. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), the number of operations performed in the countries where it’s legal equals to the amount of operations where it is banned. It is not reasonable to make it illegal, as it will not change the situation, and it will lead to the increase of the number of victims who die from poorly performed surgical procedures. This statement can be used in a high school persuasive essay on abortion, and many previously mentioned ideas can provide a basic understanding of how to write a good essay on this topic. The advanced paper would demand more information and attention to the details.
Research paper on Abortion
As now the subject is rather clear, there are several next steps to take in order to write a good essay on this subject. The first one is narrowing the topic. In order to find an appropriate one among the variety of the abortion research essay topics, use books, articles, encyclopedias and other reliable literature to define the final topic. While looking through the above-listed sources, try to find the information about people who have faced the issue, define your own point of view on the topic, explain to yourself why it is considered to be an important subject to write about and, how, when and where has the problem developed. This will be rather helpful in order to make your topic clear and give the further understanding of how to write a research paper on abortion. For example, “termination of abortion should be illegal” is a good topic, but it may not be good enough. The better topic would be the one answering the question why you think it should be illegal. So, the better topic would be: “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal because a fetus is considered to be a human being.”
There is a vast variety of the abortion research paper topics to choose from, all you need to do is to find the most appropriate for the requirements of your research. The next step would be to define your thesis or objectives. You should keep in mind that it is better to avoid a form of question and it should be written in a sentence, and you will have to exclude such phrases as “I think”, “In my opinion”, “To my mind”, “From my point of view”, and the paper should not be written in a figurative language. Your purpose in writing of this type of paper is to prove the validity of your thesis. Therefore, the thesis should not be an indisputable fact or a point of view that can’t be proven. For example, “It is ethically and legally wrong to resort to the termination of pregnancy as a developing embryo can be equated with a human life.” After you are done with the abortion research paper thesis, compose a good outline of the essay. It will organize your notes when you start the investigation. Start with listing the themes that you want to highlight in your paper. Then, divide the topics into main topics and subtopics. Your outline should contain an introduction and a thesis statement, several paragraphs of the body and conclusion. You can also think of a format in which you will write the essay; it can be written in chronological order or in a comparison-contrast format. Abortion research paper outline example is the following:
- Introduction (thesis at the end) “It is ethically and legally right to resort to the mentioned above procedure as a developing embryo cannot be equated with a human life.”
- Main body:
- Statistics, laws
- Stages of fetus development
- Conscious awareness
As you can see, the introduction paragraph for abortion essay of this type should be formed of general information on the topic, a short historical review, and a thesis statement. It should also capture the reader’s attention and shortly introduce the main ideas. The main body should expand the ideas from each section of the outline. And the conclusion should summarize your research and prove your thesis. If you decide to write a research paper against abortion, make sure to explain your position on why you are against it, search for reliable sources that demonstrate the negative influence of such procedures, introduce the real testimonies of those who have resorted to it, discuss the political and social matter of the issue, use scientific research that defends your statement. Drawing upon your outline and notes, you can also turn to research questions about abortion. They can be different, for example, is it a matter of human rights or, are is it a matter of women rights, or maybe both? Should people reference to Bible when discussing this issue? Is it better to make it illegal and would it be a good or bad decision?
After you have finished your final outline, it’s time to start writing a draft. Eventually, this draft will be revised and there no need to focus on stylistic requirements and avoiding grammatical mistakes. You should focus on the content of the research essay on abortion, taking into account your outline, drawing upon your notes. After having completed the draft, check if each topic in the main body correlates with the thesis, also take notice of pieces of evidence, check if each idea is supported by facts. After that, compose a final draft. Here you should pay attention to stylistic requirements of the paper. It should contain citations and references, title page if required. These steps can help you start completing your assignment and elucidate how to write the research paper. We do hope that these tips will help you write an excellent paper, and in case you face too many difficulties, you can buy research paper online at our website.
Cause and effect essay on Abortion
A cause and effect essay is a paper where writer introduces causes and then describes the possible implications. First, you should decide what should be the cause and what exactly should be the effect. If the termination of pregnancy is the cause, then you will want to describe possible consequences, such as physiological and psychological complications. If the procedure is the effect, you will describe the causes that have led to this measure. Choose your strategy and mind that the essay can be informative or convincing. It will give direction to the flow of the essay while gathering data and making notes. Usually, this type of an essay consists of 5 paragraphs, including introduction, a paragraph where the cause of the issue is introduced, the paragraph where the effect is highlighted, and the paragraph where these two are combined. As usual, they are followed by the conclusion. We believe that the tips mentioned above will help, but if you need more information on how to write a good cause and effect essay, you can always count on us and ask our support team in chat.
Satire essay on Abortion
This type of an essay uses irony, humor, and hyperbole to ridicule the topic. This essay is intended to entertain the readers, but it also should be eye-opening and useful. The main purpose is to make readers see the absurdity of the issue, which is discussed. You can resort to exaggeration in order to criticize it or say something absolutely opposite to what you really mean to express discrepancy between the expectations and real happening. Make jokes in order to receive the desirable reaction, because this is the shortest way to make the reader think as you do. For example, “men should be illegal” – is a bright example of a satirical expression in terms of the issue under discussion.
Explository essay on Abortion
This type of essay implies the explanation of a certain topic or a number of ideas to a particular audience. It doesn’t require a deep research; it rather demands your own thoughts on the issue. It has basic requirements, though. It contains an introduction and thesis, main body and conclusion. It also should be a 5-paragraph essay, where the main body consists of three paragraphs. It can be more sections of the main body, but not less. So let’s start with the details. The subject is abortion; the topic can be “Abortion should be illegal”, and the thesis “Abortion should be illegal, because it is inhuman”. A 5-page essay on abortion can comprehensively describe the topic and explain the main points. Compose your outline, list certain examples, which can demonstrate the main points of your topic. It can be a personal experience or real stories from life. Make sure that there is a connection between the thesis and examples. In conclusion, it is better to give a concise overview in conjunction with a forecast or recommendations for the future. Hopefully, writing an expository essay won’t be that hard for you now!
Important of Abortion essay outline
Before starting to write the essay and after conducting a proper research on the subject, you should compose the outline. Define the appropriate topic on abortion. Introduction paragraph should highlight the subject of the paper; in this case, the subject is the termination of pregnancy. In this section the reader should also be informed on how the paper is organized, it can be a concise introduction of general evidence that proves your thesis. And the last part of it should be the thesis. It should clearly express your point of view on the topic. For example, if the topic is “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal”, the thesis should be “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal because it is inhumane”. This is what the essay on abortion introduction should be.
The main body of the essay should be composed of arguments connected to the thesis supported by evidence. If required, there can also be several counterarguments and their refutation. Termination of pregnancy is a rather sensitive subject to write about; it is recommended to choose the abortion counterarguments, that you can convincingly refute in order to link it to the thesis. It is especially effective in the essay on pros and cons of abortion. The main body is followed by a conclusion. Make sure that it concisely restates all the main arguments supporting the main idea, summarize all the introduced information in order to tie it up to the thesis.
In order to make your writing project really attractive, you should use some writing techniques, which can notably improve and mark it out among the numerous amount of others. There are a lot of abortion essays on the Internet, and in order to make someone want to read yours, you should define the audience that you are addressing in your paper. Depending on the audience, the tactic will also change. For example, if your audience is a professor, the method of drawing attention will differ from the one when you are addressing your topic to your classmates or groupmates, as well as other possible social groups. Define if your target group is captive. If it is a professor or an admission person, your objective will be to encourage them to give you a good grade or to persuade them to admit you into the university. And besides, they are obliged to read your paper, because it is their job. When the target group is not paid for reading your project, you should think about how to draw their attention so that they would be interested in reading particularly your paper, because there is a huge chance that they will skip your paper and choose another one instead.
As there was mentioned before, termination of pregnancy is a rather popular topic and the abortion essay hooks will be a lifeline of your paper. When you understand what your audience is, the next step is to figure out what your readers want to read about, what are they interested in. Are they looking for entertainment? Are they willing to solve their problem? Maybe they want to find some particular information? Or they are interested in your personal thoughts? There are no strict rules of composing a good hook.
Basically, it’s one or two sentences at the beginning of your project, which serve to catch the readers’ attention. After defining the target group and its motivation, define the purpose of your paper. It can be an argumentative essay or a persuasive essay, it can also be a cause and effect essay or satiric essay, it can be a research project or expository essay, etc. Depending on the type of paper, the purpose will change. In some cases, the purpose is to describe the topic, and in others, it is to convince the reader in your rightness regarding the arguments that you provide on the matter. Sometimes, it has to be an informative writing or a descriptive one, and sometimes it is exploratory. A good hook should be supposed to evoke some feelings, and you are to determine what they should feel like after reading it, motivated to act in a certain way or become interested in your life story, get scared or entertained. A good hook represents the objective of your paper and what you want to share with. To make it completely clear, you can look through several abortion essay examples, which have similar objectives to your own essay, so it can be rather helpful.
Here are some examples of good hooks for abortion essays:
- Denying abortion is sexist
- Rape v. Abortion
- Would the unborn choose to die or live?
- Poverty is not an excuse for abortion
- Your baby is unwanted. Will it become a new John Snow?
How to choose a good topic?
When you are writing an argumentative essay, you should focus on choosing a good topic. It is one of the most sensitive issues to write about. It belongs to ten of the most disputable themes: animal rights and experimentation, breast cancer, death penalty, border control, genetic cloning, human trafficking, plastic surgery, and pharmaceutical industry. Argument essay topics on abortion can be narrowed to the specific position on pro-life or pro-choice. Your task is to define which position you will defend and from what point of view. You can highlight it in terms of religion, morality, law, human rights, ethics, health, etc. For example, “Should abortion be illegal?”, “Is it inhumane?”, “Is it always right or is it always wrong?”, etc.
Closing sentence for Abortion essay
The conclusion is intended to summarize the entire project; this is where you should revise your hook sentence, your thesis, and major ideas. There is a wide range of abortion research topics to choose from, here is the list of possible interesting ones:
- Should grandparents interfere into the taking the decision on termination of pregnancy?
- Should a woman be forced to resort to this procedure by law in some cases?
- Should women have a restricted number of possible abortions throughout their lives?
The best way to learn how to write not just a good but a top-notch essay on abortion is to follow the instructions in conjunction with following the best essay examples. It will give you an idea of how to compose a well-structured paper. Good samples are sophisticated and contain an advanced vocabulary; they are saturated with rich sentence structure and complex grammatical structures.
At the same time, examples of abortion essays can be useful in demonstrating the basic principles of writing, they represent the structure of the required type of work and help you understand the flow of the idea: where is the thesis statement, what is a good hook, how arguments and pieces of evidence correlate with the thesis statement and how a good ending should sound like. They can help you look at the topic comprehensively revealing the issue from different sides, giving you direction and inspiring you. Abortion essay outline example can inspire you to write a really decent outline for your own topic, boosting the writing process and accelerating it. They can also become very helpful to save your time, give you direction and focus on the most important ideas, which are already gathered together in the best way.
There is no need to reinvent the wheel, all you will need to do is to make it original, unique, and bright in terms of language and supporting evidence. As it was mentioned before, a sample essay on abortion can not only give an insight of the practical application of a certain style or literature device, but it can encourage you, relying upon the recognized analog of the best variant of the required paper, to write your own masterpiece. Using the best solutions from different samples, you can win the attention of your audience and achieve the desired effect. If you are stuck with your research or feel a lack of time, or you have a very important essay that is vital for your future, as an assignment, it would be a good idea to resort to a free essay on abortion as soon as possible. In the combination of following the instructions on the structure and style with your own efforts, it will quickly give you a notion of where to start from and how to move on, how to make it comprehensive, grammatically and stylistically correct, rich in terms of language and content.
Now when you have a guideline about how to write research papers, argumentative essays, and corresponding types of papers, you may want to take a look at abortion research paper examples, argumentative essays and other examples of different types of papers on this topic. You can easily find them on the Internet and on our website as well.
Other useful information
The two opposing points of views can indicate advantages and disadvantages of termination of pregnancy. In the advantages of abortion essays, one can highlight the issue in terms of the positive effect of this measure. For example, to emphasize the positive side of this procedure, you can focus on various aspects. For example, unsafe termination of abortion increases the risk of death, it should be conducted under the law and by professionals only; it is a rather disputable issue to give a birth to the child who was conceived as a result of rape or incest; sometimes to save a woman’s life this is an option, embryo and fetus are just a clump of cells, would it be cruel to give birth to a disabled fetus? The positive effects of abortion essays can describe the issue in terms of the possible life course of a woman who took a decision to resort to the procedure. If she is a teenager, she will get an opportunity to devote herself to the education; if she is unmarried, she will increase her chances to get married; if she is poor, she will be able to stand on her own feet and give birth to the child at a better time, so that the child will be able to grow in a full family of mature and educated parents.
If you are to write a disadvantages of abortion essay, it would be reasonable to stick to the following arguments. Physical and psychological complications can follow the procedure of termination of pregnancy, a woman can experience health complications and unbearable sense of guilt throughout her entire life, it can also cause a pressure from the society, it can also lead to infertility. Consequences of abortion essay should describe the issue from both sides. It should be mentioned that professionals recommend resorting to the termination of pregnancy at the earliest stages of pregnancy because the later it’s conducted, the more dangers and risks can arise. It can cause long-term effects and short-term effects. Among the long-term consequences are health complications and death. The short-term effects include increased breast cancer risk, infertility, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual dysfunction.
However, the issue can remain a philosophical question, even though it has a practical influence on a daily life of humanity. You can still try to find the answer to this question posing it in a philosophical essay on abortion. Humanity representatives of different cultures and countries have not established a common understanding of what is right regarding this extremely debatable topic. Basically, you are required to consider the issue in accordance with the necessary thesis. You should explain it, provide the supporting arguments, offer an objection and defend your thesis against the objection to it, describe the issue in terms of pros and cons, provide the reader with possible consequences it might have. There is a good example of a decent philosophical essay on the topic by Carl Sagan. Carl Sagan essay on abortion raises the most arguable questions regarding the debatable issue. For example, at what moment life begins? Should the right to live depend on circumstances of conception? What history tells us about abortion? What attitude does religion reveal in its’ texts? Should humanity look at it from one side or should it stop putting it to the extremes? All these questions can and should be raised in essays on abortion in order to highlight the topic in the best way.
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