Essay On Friendship In Telugu Language History

Telugu
తెలుగు
PronunciationIPA: [t̪el̪uɡu]
Native toIndia
Region

Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Rayalaseema,

(Yanam) and neighbouring states
EthnicityTelugu people

Native speakers

74 million (2001)[1]
5 million L2 speakers in India (2001)[2]

Language family

Writing system

Telugu alphabet
Telugu Braille
Official status

Official language in

 India

Spoken in these States and union territories of India:

Language codes
ISO 639-1
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3
Glottolog  Telugu[3]
  Old Telugu[4]
Linguasphere

Telugu is native to Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, (Yanam)

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Telugu (English:;[5]తెలుగు[t̪el̪uɡu]) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India. It stands alongside Hindi, English and Bengali as one of the few languages with official primary language status in more than one Indian state;[6][7] Telugu is the primary language in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Yanam and significant linguistic minorities in other neighbouring states. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the Government of India.[8][9]

Telugu ranks third by the number of native speakers in India (74 million, 2001 census),[10] fifteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide.[11] It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[12] Approximately 10,000 pre-colonial inscriptions exist in the Telugu language and totally there are 14,000 inscriptions in Telugu language.[13]

Etymology[edit]

The speakers of the language call it "Telugu". The older forms of the name include Teluṅgu, Tenuṅgu and Teliṅga.[15]

The etymology of Telugu is not certain. Some historical scholars have suggested a derivation from Sanskrittriliṅgam, as in Trilinga Desam, "the country of the three lingas".

Atharvana Acharya in the 13th century wrote a grammar of Telugu, calling it the "Trilinga grammar" (Trilinga Śabdānusāsana).[16] Appa Kavi in the 17th century explicitly wrote that "Telugu" was derived from Trilinga. Scholar Charles P. Brown comments that it was a "strange notion" as all the predecessors of Appa Kavi had no knowledge of such a derivation.[17]

George Abraham Grierson and other linguists doubt this derivation, holding rather that Telugu was the older term and Trilinga must be a later Sanskritisation of it.[18][19] If so the derivation itself must have been quite ancient because Triglyphum, Trilingum and Modogalingam are attested in ancient Greek sources, the last of which can be interpreted as a Telugu rendition of "Trilinga".[20]

Another view holds that tenugu is derived from the proto-Dravidian word ten– "south"[21] to mean "the people who lived in the south/southern direction" (relative to Sanskrit and Prakrit-speaking peoples). The name telugu then, is a result of 'n' -> 'l' alternation established in Telugu.[22]

History[edit]

According to the Russian linguist M. S. Andronov, Proto-South-Dravidian languages split from the Proto-Dravidian language between 1500 and 1000 BC.[24][25] According to linguist Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Telugu, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, a proto-language. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the culture associated with the Neolithic societies of South India.[26]

A legend gives the Lepakshi town a significant place in the Ramayana — this was where the bird Jatayu fell, wounded after a futile battle against Ravana who was carrying away Sita. When Sri Rama reached the spot, he saw the bird and said compassionately, "Le Pakshi" — ‘rise, bird’ in Telugu. This indicates the presence of Telugu Language during Ramayana period.[27]

There is a mention of Telugu people or Telugu country in ancient Tamil literature as Telunka Nadu[28] (Land of Telugu people).

It has been argued that there is a historical connection between the civilizations of ancient southern Mesopotamia and ancient Telugu speaking peoples.[29]

Earliest records[edit]

Prakrit Inscriptions with some Telugu words dating back to 400 BC to 100 BC have been discovered in Bhattiprolu in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.[30] The English translation of one inscription reads, "gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha".[31][32][33]

Dated between 200 BCE – 200 CE, a Prakrit work called Gāthā Saptaśatī written by Sathavahana King Hala, Telugu words like అత్త, వాలుంకి, పీలుఅ, పోట్టం, కిలించిఅః, అద్దాఏ, భోండీ, సరఅస్స, తుప్ప, ఫలహీ, వేంట, రుంప-రంప, మడహసరిఆ, వోడసుణఓ, సాఉలీ and తీరఏ have been used.

Certain exploration and excavation missions conducted by the Archaeological Department in and around the Keesaragutta temple brought to light number of brick temples, cells and other structures encompassed by brick prakara wall along with coins, beads, stucco figures, garbhapatra, pottery, Brahmi label inscriptions datable to 4th – 5th C.A.D. On top of one of the rock-cut caves, an early Telugu label inscription reading as ‘Thulachuvanru’ can be noticed. On the basis of palaeography, the inscription is dated to 4th - 5th century A.D.[34]

The first word in Telugu language, "Nagabu", was found in a Sanskrit inscription of the 1st century B.C at Amravati.[35][36] Telugu words were also found in the Dharmasila inscription of Emperor Ashoka. A number of Telugu words were found in the Sanskrit and Prakrit inscriptions of Satavahanas, Vishnukundins, Ikshwaks etc.

According to the native tradition Telugu grammar has an ancient past. Sage Kanva was said to be the first grammarian of Telugu. A Rajeswara Sarma discussed the historicity and content of Kanva's grammar written in Sanskrit. He cited twenty grammatical aphorisms ascribed to Kanva, and concluded that Kanva wrote an ancient Telugu Grammar which was lost.[37]

The coin legends of the Satavahanas, in all areas and all periods, used a Prakrit dialect without exception. Some reverse coin legends are in Tamil,[38] and Telugu languages.[40]

Post-Ikshvaku period[edit]

Main article: Early Telugu epigraphy

The period from 575 AD to 1022 AD corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history, after the Andhra Ikshvaku period. This is evidenced by the first inscription that is entirely in Telugu, dated 575 AD, which was found in the Rayalaseema region and is attributed to the Renati Cholas, who broke with the prevailing custom of using Sanskrit and began writing royal proclamations in the local language. During the next fifty years, Telugu inscriptions appeared in Anantapuram and other neighbouring regions.[41] Telugu was more influenced by Sanskrit and Prakrit during this period, which corresponded to the advent of Telugu literature. Telugu literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers, and later in written works such as Nannayya's Mahabharatam (1022 AD).[42] During the time of Nannayya, the literary language diverged from the popular language. It was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language.

Middle Ages[edit]

The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary language. During this period the split of the Telugu and Kannada alphabets took place.[43]Tikkana wrote his works in this script.

Vijayanagara Empire[edit]

The Vijayanagara Empire gained dominance from 1336 to the late 17th century, reaching its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya in the 16th century, when Telugu literature experienced what is considered its Golden Age.[42]

Delhi Sultanate and Mughal influence[edit]

With the exception of Coastal Andhra,[citation needed] a distinct dialect developed in the Telangana State and the parts of Rayalaseema region due to Persian/Arabic influence: the Delhi Sultanate of the Tughlaq dynasty was established earlier in the northern Deccan Plateau during the 14th century. In the latter half of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad State by the dynasty of the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian influence on the Telugu language, especially Hyderabad State. The effect is also evident in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.[42]

In the princely Hyderabad State, the Andhra Mahasabha was started in 1921 with the main intention of promoting Telugu language, literature, its books and historical research led by Madapati Hanumantha Rao (the founder of the Andhra Mahasabha), Komarraju Venkata Lakshmana Rao (Founder of Library Movement in Hyderabad State), Suravaram Pratapa Reddy and others.

Colonial period[edit]

The 16th-century Venetian explorer Niccolò de' Conti, who visited the Vijayanagara Empire, found that the words in Telugu language end with vowels, just like those in Italian, and hence referred it as "The Italian of the East";[44] a saying that has been widely repeated.[45]

In the period of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries saw the influence of the English language and modern communication/printing press as an effect of the British rule, especially in the areas that were part of the Madras Presidency. Literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by scholars like Gidugu Venkata Ramamoorty, Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Gurazada Apparao, Gidugu Sitapati and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao.[42]

Since the 1930s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language, has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like movies, television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools and colleges as a standard.

Post-independence period[edit]

  1. Telugu is one of the 22 languages with official status in India.
  2. The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu the official language of the state that is currently divided into Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. This enactment was implemented by GOMs No 420 in 2005.[46][47]
  3. Telugu also has official language status in the Yanam district of the union territory of Puducherry.
  4. Telugu, along with Kannada, was declared as one of the classical languages of India in the year 2008.
  5. The fourth World Telugu Conference was organized in Tirupati in the last week of December 2012 and deliberated at length on issues related to Telugu language policy.
  6. Telugu is the third most spoken native language in India after Hindi and Bengali.
  7. Telugu is also the most spoken Dravidian language in the world.
  8. Telugu is the 3rd most spoken Indian language in the U.S after Hindi, and Gujarati as of 2017.[48]

Epigraphical records[edit]

Main article: Early Telugu epigraphy

According to the famous Japanese Historian Noboru Karashima who once served as the President of the Epigraphical Society of India in 1985 calculated that there are approximately 10,000 inscriptions which exist in the Telugu language as of the year 1996 making it one of the most densely inscribed languages.[13] Telugu inscriptions are found in all the districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[49][50][51][52] They are also found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh.[53][52][54][55] According to recent estimates by ASI (Archaeological Survey of India) the number of inscriptions in Telugu language goes up to 14,000.[56][57] Namely Adilabad, Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Anantapur, and Chittoor — produced no more than a handful of Telugu inscriptions in the Kakatiya era spanning between 1175-1324 AD.[58][59]

Ancient inscriptions[edit]

Vishnukundina[edit]

No. 1. (A. R. No. 581 of 1925) On a white marble pillar near the entrance into the temple of Ramalingavami at Velpuru, Sattenpalli Taluk, Guntur District. Undated. This is the only stone inscription of this dynasty so far found and it is damaged and incomplete. Only the name of the family Vishnukundi and that of a ruler Madhava Varma are legible.

Western Chalukya Dynasty[edit]

No. 27. (A. R. No. 596 of 1909.) On the Naga pillar in the temple of Virabhadra outside the village of Gurazala, Palnadu Taluk, same District. S. [10]51. States that a Brahmin named Dara son of Kommana who was the head of Kummunuru village and who claimed to be an incarnation of the serpent king Sesha, put up a Naga-stambha in front of the temple of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva built by himself and that Betabhupa of the Haihaya family, a dependent of Bhulo Kamalla Deva (Someshvara III) made a gift of four kharis of land to the said temple.

Eastern Chalukya Dynasty[edit]

No. 4. (A. R. No. 431 of 1915) On a nandi slab set up near the temple of Someshvara at Eluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, Same District. S. 925. Records the grant of land to god Somanathadeva by Paricheda Chikka Bhimaraju.

Chola Dynasty[edit]

No. 64. (A. R. No. 567 of 1925.) On a big white marble pillar set up near the dhvajastambha in the temple of Ramalingesvara, Velpuru, Sattenepalli Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1030 Records the gift of a perpetual lamp by Kota Gokaraju son of Bhima to the temple of Ramesvara of Velupuru.

Early Cholas of Renadu[edit]

No. 607. (A. R. No. 380 of 1904.) On two faces of a broken pillar lying in the courtyard of the temple of Chennakesavasvami at Kalamalla, Kamalapuram Taluk, same District. Undated. Damaged and unintelligible. Mentions Dhananjaya MuttaRasu(Raju) and Renadu.He is the descendant of early Tamil cholas .Here in this place these people population is so high.

  • The first Telugu inscription known as ‘Kalamalla’ , dating back to 575 AD, found in Sri Chennakesava Swamy temple premises in Kalamalla village in Kadapa district was made by Renati Chola King Erikal Muturaju Dhanunjaya Varma.

Eastern Ganga[edit]

No. 651. (A. R. No. 99 of 1909.) On a stone lying near Paravastu Rangacharya's house at Vizagapatam. S. 101[3] (h) 17th year of Ananta Varma Deva. Records the gift of "perumbadi" (?) by the "city twelve" of Visakhapattanamu alias Kulottunga-Chodapattanamu to Matamana of Malamandala. The description of the donor is not quite intelligible.

No. 675 (A. R. No. 681 of 1926.) On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the temple of Nilakanthesvara, Narayanapuram, Bobbili Taluk, same District. S. 1053. Records gift of a perpetual lamp by Chodaraju Maha Devi (and another ?) to the temple of Nilisvara for the merit of Chodagangadeva.

No. 727. (A. R. No. 827 of 1917.) On a stone lying at the entrance into the temple of Tumbesvara, Pratapur, Chatrapur Taluk, Ganjam District. Year missing. Incomplete. Mentions. Ananta Varma

Gajapati[edit]

No. 732. (A. R. No. 802 of 1922.) On the four faces of the Garuda-pillar planted near the dhvajastambha in the temple of Chennakesava, Idupulapadu, same Taluk and District. S. 1422. (Raudri) Records the gift by Pratapa-Radra of the village Idvulapadu to the east of Vinikonda, to Madhava-mantrin of the Bharadvaja-gotra and the Yajnyavalkya-saka. Gives a genealogy of the Gajapatis and of the donor.

No. 733. (A. R. No. 375 of 1926.) On a stone built into a gate of the fort at Tangeda, Palnad Taluk, same District. S. 14[3]1 (Sukla) Damaged. Unintelligible; Mentions some Khan. States that Pratapa-Rudradeva Gajapati was ruling.

No. 741. (A. R. No. 54 of 1912.) On a pillar in the temple of Kesavasvami at Chodavaram, Viravalli Taluk, Vizagapatam District. Saka year not given (Kalayukti) Records the consecration of the image of Garutmanta by Bondu Mallayya for the prosperity etc. of Bhupatiraju Vallabha Raju-Mahapatra.

Kakatiya Dynasty[edit]

No. 257. (A. R. No. 324 of 1915.) On the Garudastambha in the temple of Venugopalasvami, Uppumaguluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, same District. S. 1133. Damaged and partly illegible. Refers to the gift of an oil-mill and land made by Balli Chodaraju presumably to some temple.

(A. R. No. 138 of 1917.) On a slab lying in front of the temple of Venugopalasvami, Potturu, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1168. Incomplete. The portion which describes the actual grant is missing. The portion available refers to what was probably a gift made to a Siva temple by Paricheda Bhimaraja, Tammu Bhimaraju, Devaraju and Ganapa Deva Raju for the merit of their father Komma Raju and mother Surala Devi. Contains the usual Parichedi titles.

No. 373. (A. R. No. 283 of 1924.) On a pillar lying in the temple of Chandramaulisvara, Anumanchipalli, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1182. (Raudri) States that a certain Brahmin Chavali Bhaskara consecrated the image of Sagi-Ganapesvara and that king Sagi Manma endowed the temple with land. Describes the Sagi family as of Kshatriya caste (bahujakula) and gives the donor's genealogy.

No. 376. (A. R. No. 769 of 1922.) On a stone built into the back wall of the temple of Chennakesavasvami, Nayanipalli, Bapatla Taluk, Guntur District. Year unknown. States that, in the course of his conquest of the South, king Ganapati Deva protected the king of Nelluru have killed his enemies Padihari Bayyana, Tikkana and others, that he vanquished Kulottunga Rajendra Choda of Dravila mandala, that he received presents of elephants from the king of Nelluru, that he saved the Bhringi matha on the Sriparvata and that he consecrated the image of Kumara Ganapesvara-mahadeva after his own name in ... palli. The concluding portion is missing.

No. 381. (A. R. No. 142 of 1913.) On a slab brought from Yanamadala and preserved in the Collector's Office, Guntur, same District. S. 11. 3. Incomplete and somewhat damaged. States that a certain Beta Raju founded the temple of Gopalasvami and endowed it with land, that Queen Ganapama gave it an oil-mill and a garden and that certain merchants assigned to it certain customs duties and taxes. Ganapama was probably the wife of the Kota chief.

No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) On the huge Nandi pillar lying near the ruined temple in Malkapuram, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. (Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV, pp. 147–64.) S. 1183. (Durmati) Gives a detailed account of the Kakatiya family and of the foundation and pontifical succession of the Golaki-matha of the Saivas and states that king Ganapatideva promised the village of Mandara in the Velanadu-Kandravati country to his guru Visvesvara Sivacharya and that Ganapati's daughter Rudramadevi made a formal gift of that village along with the village of Velangapundi, that Visvesvara Siva established a new village with the name of Visvesvara-Golaki and peopled it with person of different castes brought from various parts of the country, that he also established the temple of Visvesvara, a Sanskrit college, a matha for Saivas, a choultry for feeding people without distinction of caste and creed, a general land a maternity hospital, besides some other things and that he made grants of land for the maintenance of all these institutions. Gives a detailed description of the administration of the trust and of the village affairs. Incidentally, it mentions a large number of other religious and charitable institutions established by Visvesvara Siva in several other places. Kakatiyas are described as belonging to the Solar race of Kshatriyas.

No. 426. (A. R. No. 222 of 1905.) On the north wall of the dark room in the temple of Tripurantakesvara, Tripurantakam, Kurnool District. S. 1192. (Pramoduta). States that Paricheda Vadamani Kota Deva Raju gave 17 cows for a lamp in the temple of Tripurantakadeva.

Vijayanagara Dynasty[edit]

No. 129. (A.R. No. 690 of 1917.) Kovelakuntla, Koilkuntla Taluk, Kurnool District. On a slab set up in front of the Ankalamma temple. Sadasiva Raya, 1543 AD. This is dated Saka 1465, Sobhakrit, Nija-Sravana ba. 10., corresponding to AD 1543, 25 August (Saturday). It registers the grant of income derived from svamyatas in his nayankara territory of Kovila Kuntlasima for the Cherapu (Sirappu) and Paruventa festivals of the goddess Ahankal Amma by Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhalesvara Deva Maharaju, son of Singa Raju Deva Maharaju and the grandson of Narasingayya Deva Maharaju of the lunar race.

No. 139. (A.R. No. 498 of 1906.) Mopuru, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. On a slab set up in front of the central shrine of the Bhairavesvara temple. Sadasiva, AD 1545. This is dated Saka 1466, Krodhin, Magha su. 7, Rathasaptami, Monday, corresponding to AD 1545, 19 January 1950. It records the remission of all taxes like Durga Vartana, Danayani Vartana, bedige, kanika and others in favour of the Vidvan mahajanas of the villages belonging to temples and to agraharas in Ghandikota Sakalisima obtained by the donor, Timmaya Deva Maharaju, son of Narasingaya Deva Maharaju and grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhala Deva Maharaju as Nayankara from the king. A similar remission of these taxes in the villages granted to the Bhai Ravesvara temple of Mopura is also recorded with the stipulation that the amount accrued was to be utilised for the daily worship and the rathosvava of the god.

No. 167. (A.R. No. 377 of 1926.) Tangeda, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in front of the deserted temple of Sita Rama Svamin in the fort. Sadasiva, AD 1548. This is dated Saka 1470, Kilaka, vaisakha su. 15, Sunday, lunar eclipse corresponding to AD 1548, 22 April. It registers the grant of the village Kachavaram in Tangedasima to the god Lakshmi Narasimha at Tangeda by Deva Chodaraju, son of Mummaya Deva Chodaraju and the grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Apratika Malla Kurucheti Somaya Deva Chodaraju of the solar race and belonging to the Kasyapa-gotra, apastamba-sutra and Yajus-sakha at the command of Rama Raja Vithalaya Deva Maharaju who is said to have conferred the Tangedasima as nayankara the donor.

No. 175. (A.R. No. 369 of 1920.) Chitrachedu, Gooty Taluk, Anantapur District. On a slab in the compound of the mosque. Sadasiva, AD 1550. This is dated Saka 1473 (current), Sadharana, Ashadha su. 10 corresponding to AD 1550, 23 June, (Monday). This fragmentary record mentions the pontiff Santa Bhiksha Vritti Ayyavaru and his three spiritual sons, the Narapati, Asvapati and Gajapati kings who seem to have made some gifts to god Mallikarjuna of Srisaila worshipped by them.

No. 191. (A.R. No. 584 of 1909.) Macherla, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in the courtyard of the Virabhadresvara temple. Sadasiva, AD 1554. The record is dated in Chronogram ‘rasa-saila-veda..’ and the numerals 76, Ananda, Ashadha, su. 15, Friday, lunar eclipse. The word for the numeral 1 is apparently lost. The details of the date correspond to AD 1554, 15 June 1551, if the month was Adhika Ashadha. The inscription which is damaged, records a grant of 14 putti and 10 tumu of land constituting it into a village by name Lingapuram, by Ling Amma, wife of Veligoti Komara Timma Nayaka to the gods Ishta Kamesvara and Viresvara of Macherla situated to the north of Macherla and west of the Chandra Bhaga river, in Nagarjuna-konda-sima which Komara Timma Nayaka is said to have obtained as nayankara from Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju.

No. 201. (A.R. No. 161 of 1905.) Markapur, Markapur Taluk, Kurnool District. On the east wall, left of entrance, of the antarala-mandapa in the Chenna-kesava-svamin temple. Sadasiva, AD 1555. This is dated Saka 1476, Ananda, Magha su. 7, corresponding to AD 1555, 29 January.

It records a gift of the various toll incomes due from the 18 villages, viz., Marakarapuram, Channavaram, Konddapuram, Yachavaram, Rayavaram, Gonguladinna, Tarnumbadu, Surepalli, Vanalapuram, Chanareddipalle, Gangireddipalle, Korevanipalle, Medisettipalle, Gollapalle, Jammuladinna, Tellambadu, Kamalpuram and Kondapalli to god Chennakesava by Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Narappadeva Maharaju, son of Aubhalayya Deva Maharaju, grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Singa Raju Deva Maharaju, of Kasyapa-gotra and Surya-vamsa, and nephew of Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju. The gift villages are said to be situated in Kochcherla Kotasima which was held by the donor as Nayankara from the king. Records in addition that the lanjasunkham (levy on prostitutes) collected during the festivals at Marakapuram was also made over to the temple and that five out of every six dishes of offerings to the deity, were to be made over to the satra (feeding house) for feeding paradesi Brahmanas of the smartha sect, the sixth dish being the share of the sthanikas, the adhikaris and the karanas.

Telugu region boundaries[edit]

Andhra is characterised as having its own mother tongue, and its territory has been equated with the extent of the Telugu language. The equivalence between the Telugu linguistic sphere and geographical boundaries of Andhra is also brought out in an eleventh century description of Andhra boundaries. Andhra, according to this text, was bounded in north by Mahendra mountain in the modern Ganjam District of Orissa and to the south by Kalahasti temple in Chittor District. But Andhra extended westwards as far as Srisailam in the Kurnool District, about halfway across the modern state. Page number-36.[60] According to other sources in the early sixteenth century, the northern boundary is Simhachalam and the southern limit is Tirupati or Tirumala Hill of the Telugu Country.[61][62][63][64][65][66]

Telugu place names[edit]

Main article: Place names in India

Telugu place names are present all around Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Common suffixes are ooru, pudi, pedu, peta, patnam, wada, giri, cherla, seema, Gudem etc. Example: Guntur, Chintalapudi, Yerpedu, Suryapet, Vemulawada, Visakhapatnam, Ananthagiri HillsVijayawada, Macherla, Miryalagudem etc. They can also be seen in the border areas of Tamil Nadu.

Dialects[edit]

There are three major dialects: Andhra dialect spoken in the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema dialect spoken in the four Rayalaseema districts of Andhra Pradesh and finally Telangana dialect, laced with Urdu words, spoken mainly in Telangana.[67]

Waddar, Chenchu, and Manna-Dora are all closely related to Telugu.[68] Dialects of Telugu are Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari and Yanadi.[69]

In Karnataka the dialect sees more influence of Kannada and is a bit different than what is spoken in Andhra. There are significant populations of Telugu speakers in the eastern districts of Karnataka viz. Bangalore Urban, Bellary, Chikballapur, Kolar.

In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Salem, Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Madras Telugu dialects. It is also spoken in pockets of Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Theni, Madras (Chennai) and Thanjavur districts.

Geographic distribution[edit]

See also: States of India by Telugu speakers

Telugu is natively spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and Yanam district of Puducherry. Telugu speaking migrants are also found in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, some parts of Jharkhand and the Kharagpur region of West Bengal in India. At 7.2% of the population, Telugu is the third-most-spoken language in the Indian subcontinent after Hindi and Bengali. In Karnataka, 7.0% of the population speak Telugu, and 5.6% in Tamil Nadu.[70]

The Telugu diaspora numbers more than 800,000 in the United States, with the highest concentration in CentralNew Jersey (Little Andhra[71]); Telugu speakers are found as well in Australia, New Zealand, Bahrain, Canada (Toronto), Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Myanmar, Europe (Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom), South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, and United Arab Emirates.

Phonology[edit]

The roman transliteration of the Telugu script is in National Library at Kolkata romanisation.

Telugu words generally end in vowels. In Old Telugu, this was absolute; in the modern language m, n, y, w may end a word. Atypically for a Dravidian language, voiced consonants were distinctive even in the oldest recorded form of the language. Sanskrit loans have introduced aspirated and murmured consonants as well.

Telugu does not have contrastive stress, and speakers vary on where they perceive stress. Most place it on the penultimate or final syllable, depending on word and vowel length.[72]

Vowels[edit]

Telugu features a form of vowel harmony wherein the second vowel in disyllabic noun and adjective roots alters according to whether the first vowel is tense or lax.[73][need illustrations] Also, if the second vowel is open (i.e., /aː/ or /a/), then the first vowel is more open and centralized (e.g., [mɛːka] 'goat', as opposed to [mku] 'nail').[citation needed] Telugu words also have vowels in inflectional suffixes that are harmonized with the vowels of the preceding syllable.[74]

Vowels – అచ్చులు acculu
/i/ ఇ i/iː/ ఈ ī/u/ ఉ u/uː/ ఊ ū
/e/ ఎ e/eː/ ఏ ē/o/ ఒ o/oː/ ఓ ō
/æː//a/ అ a/aː/ ఆ ā

/æː/ only occurs in loan words.

Telugu has two diphthongs: /ai/ ఐ ai and /au/ ఔ au .

Consonants[edit]

The table below illustrates the articulation of the consonants.[75]

*The aspirated and breathy-voiced consonants occur mostly in loan words, as do the fricatives apart from native /s̪/.

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Telugu grammar

The Telugu Grammar is called vyākaranam (వ్యాకరణం).

The first treatise on Telugu grammar, the Āndhra Śabda Cinṭāmaṇi, was written in Sanskrit by Nannayya, considered the first Telugu poet and translator, in the 11th century AD. This grammar followed patterns described in grammatical treatises such as Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam, but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya. Every Telugu grammatical rule is derived from Pāṇinian concepts.

In the 19th century, Chinnaya Suri wrote a simplified work on Telugu grammar called Bāla Vyākaraṇam, borrowing concepts and ideas from Nannayya's grammar.

Sentenceరాముడు బడికి వెళ్తాడు.
Wordsరాముడుబడికివెళ్తాడు.
Transliterationrāmuḍubaḍikiveḷtāḍu
GlossRamato schoolgoes.
PartsSubjectObjectVerb
TranslationRama goes to school.

This sentence can also be interpreted as 'Rama will go to school', depending on the context, but it does not affect the SOV order.

Inflection[edit]

Telugu nouns are inflected for number (singular, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and case (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, vocative, instrumental, and locative).[76]

Gender[edit

Telugu Thalli Bomma, the personification of Telugu language in AP.
Geographic distribution of Telugu immigrants in light blue, Telugu is native to dark blue.

Telugu script (Telugu: తెలుగు లిపి, translit. Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language. It gained prominence during the Eastern Chalukyas also known as Vengi Chalukya era. It shares many similarities with its sibling Kannada script, as it has evolved from Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family. Both Adikavi Pampa of Kannada and Adikavi Nannayya of Telugu hail from families native to the Vengi province.

Derivation from Brahmi script[edit]

The Brahmi script used by Mauryan kings eventually reached the Krishna River delta and would give rise to the Bhattiprolu script found on an urn purported to contain Lord Buddha's relics.[2][3]Buddhism spread to east Asia from the nearby ports of Ghantasala and Masulipatnam (ancient Maisolos of Ptolemy and Masalia of Periplus).[4] The Bhattiprolu Brahmi script evolved into the Telugu script by 5th century C.E.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The Muslim historian and scholar Al-Biruni referred to both the Telugu language as well as its script as "Andhri".[12]

Letters[edit]

Telugu uses eighteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels.

IndependentWith క (k)ISOIPAIndependentWith క (k)ISOIPA
a/a/కాā/aː/
కిi/i/కీī/iː/
కుu/u/కూū/uː/
కృ/ru/కౄr̥̄/ruː/
కౢకౣl̥̄
కెe/e/కేē/eː/
కైai/aj/కొo/o/
కోō/oː/కౌau/aw/
అంకంఅఃకః

The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the dotted circle) to form a consonant-vowel syllable (example: ka, kru, mo). అ does not have a diacritic form, because this vowel is already inherent in all of the consonants. The other diacritic vowels are added to consonants to change their pronunciation to that of the vowel.

Examples:

ఖ + ఈ (ీ) → ఖీ/kʰa/ + /iː/ → /kʰiː/
జ + ఉ (ు) → జు/dʒa/ + /u/ → /dʒu/
CharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPA
k/k/kh/kʰ/g/ɡ/gh/ɡʱ//ŋ/
c/tʃ/ch/tʃʰ/j/dʒ/jh/dʒʱ/ñ/ɲ/
/ʈ/ṭh/ʈʰ//ɖ/ḍh/ɖʱ//ɳ/
t/t/th/tʰ/d/d/dh/dʱ/n/n/
p/p/ph/pʰ/b/b/bh/bʱ/m/m/
y/j/r/r/l/l/v/ʋ//ɭ/
ś/ʃ//ʂ/s/s/h/h//ɽ/

Other diacritics[edit]

There are also several other diacritics used in the Telugu script. ్ mutes the vowel of a consonant, so that only the consonant is pronounced. ం and ఁ nasalize the vowels or syllables to which they are attached. ః adds a voiceless breath after the vowel or syllable it is attached to.

CharacterISOCharacterISOCharacterISOCharacterISO
అంaṁఅఁan̆అఃaḥక్k

Examples:

క + ్ → క్   [ka] + [∅] → [k]
క + ఁ → కఁ[ka] + [n] → [kan̆]
క + ం → కం[ka] + [m] → [kaṁ]
క + ః → కః[ka] + [h] → [kaḥ]

Places of articulation [edit]

The places of articulation (passive) are classified as five.

Kaṇṭhya : Velar
Tālavya : Palatal
Mūrdhanya : Retroflex
Dantya : Dental
Ōshtya : Labial

Apart from that, other places are combinations of the above five places.

Dantōsthya : Labio-dental (E.g.: v)
Kantatālavya : E.g.: Diphthong e
Kantōsthya : labial-velar (E.g.: Diphthong o)

The places of articulation (active) are classified as three, they are

Jihvāmūlam : tongue root, for velar
Jihvāmadhyam : tongue body, for palatal
Jihvāgram : tip of tongue, for cerebral and dental
Adhōṣṭa : lower lip, for labial

The attempt of articulation of consonants(Uccāraṇa Prayatnam) is of two types,

Bāhya Prayatnam : External effort
Spṛṣṭa : Plosive
Īshat Spṛṣṭa : Approximant
Īshat Saṃvṛta : Fricative
Abhyantara Prayatnam : Internal effort
Alpaprānam : Unaspirated
Mahāprānam : Aspirated
Śvāsa : Unvoiced
Nādam : Voiced

Articulation of consonants[edit]

Articulation of consonants will be a logical combination of components in the two prayatnams. The below table gives a view upon articulation of consonants.

Prayatna NiyamāvalīKanthya
(jihvāmūlam)
Tālavya
(jihvāmadhyam)
Mūrdhanya
(jihvāgram)
Dantya
(jihvāgram)
DantōṣṭyaŌshtya
(adhōsta)
Sparśa, Śvāsa, Alpaprānamka (క)ca (చ)ṭa (ట)ta (త)pa (ప)
Sparśa, Śvāsa, Mahāprānamkha (ఖ)cha (ఛ)ṭha (ఠ)tha (థ)pha (ఫ)
Sparśa, Nāda, Alpaprānamga (గ)ja (జ)ḍa (డ)da (ద)ba (బ)
Sparśa, Nāda, Mahāprānamgha (ఘ)jha (ఝ)ḍha (ఢ)dha (ధ)bha (భ)
Sparśa, Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Anunāsikam, Dravam, Avyāhata
ṅa (ఙ)ña (ఞ)ṇa (ణ)na (న)ma (మ)
Antastha, Nādam, Alpaprāṇam,
Drava, Avyāhata
ya (య)ra (ర)
(Lunthita)
la (ల)
(Pārśvika)
va (వ)
Ūṣman, Śvāsa, Mahāprāṇam, AvyāhataVisargaśa (శ)ṣa (ష)sa (స)
Ūshman, Nādam, Mahāprānam, Avyāhataha (హ)

Consonant Conjuncts[edit]

The Telugu script has generally regular conjuncts, with trailing consonants taking a subjoined form, often losing the v-shaped headstroke. The following table shows all two-consonant and one three-consonant conjunct, but individual conjuncts may differ between fonts.

క్ష
క్కక్ఖక్గక్ఘక్ఙక్చక్ఛక్జక్ఝక్ఞక్టక్ఠక్డక్ఢక్ణక్తక్థక్దక్ధక్నక్పక్ఫక్బక్భక్మక్యక్రక్లక్వక్శక్షక్సక్హక్ళక్క్షక్ఱ
ఖ్కఖ్ఖఖ్గఖ్ఘఖ్ఙఖ్చఖ్ఛఖ్జఖ్ఝఖ్ఞఖ్టఖ్ఠఖ్డఖ్ఢఖ్ణఖ్తఖ్థఖ్దఖ్ధఖ్నఖ్పఖ్ఫఖ్బఖ్భఖ్మఖ్యఖ్రఖ్లఖ్వఖ్శఖ్షఖ్సఖ్హఖ్ళఖ్క్షఖ్ఱ
గ్కగ్ఖగ్గగ్ఘగ్ఙగ్చగ్ఛగ్జగ్ఝగ్ఞగ్టగ్ఠగ్డగ్ఢగ్ణగ్తగ్థగ్దగ్ధగ్నగ్పగ్ఫగ్బగ్భగ్మగ్యగ్రగ్లగ్వగ్శగ్షగ్సగ్హగ్ళగ్క్షగ్ఱ
ఘ్కఘ్ఖఘ్గఘ్ఘఘ్ఙఘ్చఘ్ఛఘ్జఘ్ఝఘ్ఞఘ్టఘ్ఠఘ్డఘ్ఢఘ్ణఘ్తఘ్థఘ్దఘ్ధఘ్నఘ్పఘ్ఫఘ్బఘ్భఘ్మఘ్యఘ్రఘ్లఘ్వఘ్శఘ్షఘ్సఘ్హఘ్ళఘ్క్షఘ్ఱ
ఙ్కఙ్ఖఙ్గఙ్ఘఙ్ఙఙ్చఙ్ఛఙ్జఙ్ఝఙ్ఞఙ్టఙ్ఠఙ్డఙ్ఢఙ్ణఙ్తఙ్థఙ్దఙ్ధఙ్నఙ్పఙ్ఫఙ్బఙ్భఙ్మఙ్యఙ్రఙ్లఙ్వఙ్శఙ్షఙ్సఙ్హఙ్ళఙ్క్షఙ్ఱ
చ్కచ్ఖచ్గచ్ఘచ్ఙచ్చచ్ఛచ్జచ్ఝచ్ఞచ్టచ్ఠచ్డచ్ఢచ్ణచ్తచ్థచ్దచ్ధచ్నచ్పచ్ఫచ్బచ్భచ్మచ్యచ్రచ్లచ్వచ్శచ్షచ్సచ్హచ్ళచ్క్షచ్ఱ
ఛ్కఛ్ఖఛ్గఛ్ఘఛ్ఙఛ్చఛ్ఛఛ్జఛ్ఝఛ్ఞఛ్టఛ్ఠఛ్డఛ్ఢఛ్ణఛ్తఛ్థఛ్దఛ్ధఛ్నఛ్పఛ్ఫఛ్బఛ్భఛ్మఛ్యఛ్రఛ్లఛ్వఛ్శఛ్షఛ్సఛ్హఛ్ళఛ్క్షఛ్ఱ
జ్కజ్ఖజ్గజ్ఘజ్ఙజ్చజ్ఛజ్జజ్ఝజ్ఞజ్టజ్ఠజ్డజ్ఢజ్ణజ్తజ్థజ్దజ్ధజ్నజ్పజ్ఫజ్బజ్భజ్మజ్యజ్రజ్లజ్వజ్శజ్షజ్సజ్హజ్ళజ్క్షజ్ఱ
ఝ్కఝ్ఖఝ్గఝ్ఘఝ్ఙఝ్చఝ్ఛఝ్జఝ్ఝఝ్ఞఝ్టఝ్ఠఝ్డఝ్ఢఝ్ణఝ్తఝ్థఝ్దఝ్ధఝ్నఝ్పఝ్ఫఝ్బఝ్భఝ్మఝ్యఝ్రఝ్లఝ్వఝ్శఝ్షఝ్సఝ్హఝ్ళఝ్క్షఝ్ఱ
ఞ్కఞ్ఖఞ్గఞ్ఘఞ్ఙఞ్చఞ్ఛఞ్జఞ్ఝఞ్ఞఞ్టఞ్ఠఞ్డఞ్ఢఞ్ణఞ్తఞ్థఞ్దఞ్ధఞ్నఞ్పఞ్ఫఞ్బఞ్భఞ్మఞ్యఞ్రఞ్లఞ్వఞ్శఞ్షఞ్సఞ్హఞ్ళఞ్క్షఞ్ఱ
ట్కట్ఖట్గట్ఘట్ఙట్చట్ఛట్జట్ఝట్ఞట్టట్ఠట్డట్ఢట్ణట్తట్థట్దట్ధట్నట్పట్ఫట్బట్భట్మట్యట్రట్లట్వట్శట్షట్సట్హట్ళట్క్షట్ఱ
ఠ్కఠ్ఖఠ్గఠ్ఘఠ్ఙఠ్చఠ్ఛఠ్జఠ్ఝఠ్ఞఠ్టఠ్ఠఠ్డఠ్ఢఠ్ణఠ్తఠ్థఠ్దఠ్ధఠ్నఠ్పఠ్ఫఠ్బఠ్భఠ్మఠ్యఠ్రఠ్లఠ్వఠ్శఠ్షఠ్సఠ్హఠ్ళఠ్క్షఠ్ఱ
డ్కడ్ఖడ్గడ్ఘడ్ఙడ్చడ్ఛడ్జడ్ఝడ్ఞడ్టడ్ఠడ్డడ్ఢడ్ణడ్తడ్థడ్దడ్ధడ్నడ్పడ్ఫడ్బడ్భడ్మడ్యడ్రడ్లడ్వడ్శడ్షడ్సడ్హడ్ళడ్క్షడ్ఱ
ఢ్కఢ్ఖఢ్గఢ్ఘఢ్ఙఢ్చఢ్ఛఢ్జఢ్ఝఢ్ఞఢ్టఢ్ఠఢ్డఢ్ఢఢ్ణఢ్తఢ్థఢ్దఢ్ధఢ్నఢ్పఢ్ఫఢ్బఢ్భఢ్మఢ్యఢ్రఢ్లఢ్వఢ్శఢ్షఢ్సఢ్హఢ్ళఢ్క్షఢ్ఱ
ణ్కణ్ఖణ్గణ్ఘణ్ఙణ్చణ్ఛణ్జణ్ఝణ్ఞణ్టణ్ఠణ్డణ్ఢణ్ణణ్తణ్థణ్దణ్ధణ్నణ్పణ్ఫణ్బణ్భణ్మణ్యణ్రణ్లణ్వణ్శణ్షణ్సణ్హణ్ళణ్క్షణ్ఱ
త్కత్ఖత్గత్ఘత్ఙత్చత్ఛత్జత్ఝత్ఞత్టత్ఠత్డత్ఢత్ణత్తత్థత్దత్ధత్నత్పత్ఫత్బత్భత్మత్యత్రత్లత్వత్శత్షత్సత్హత్ళత్క్షత్ఱ
థ్కథ్ఖథ్గథ్ఘథ్ఙథ్చథ్ఛథ్జథ్ఝథ్ఞథ్టథ్ఠథ్డథ్ఢథ్ణథ్తథ్థథ్దథ్ధథ్నథ్పథ్ఫథ్బథ్భథ్మథ్యథ్రథ్లథ్వథ్శథ్షథ్సథ్హథ్ళథ్క్షథ్ఱ
ద్కద్ఖద్గద్ఘద్ఙద్చద్ఛద్జద్ఝద్ఞద్టద్ఠద్డద్ఢద్ణద్తద్థద్దద్ధద్నద్పద్ఫద్బద్భద్మద్యద్రద్లద్వద్శద్షద్సద్హద్ళద్క్షద్ఱ
ధ్కధ్ఖధ్గధ్ఘధ్ఙధ్చధ్ఛధ్జధ్ఝధ్ఞధ్టధ్ఠధ్డధ్ఢధ్ణధ్తధ్థధ్దధ్ధధ్నధ్పధ్ఫధ్బధ్భధ్మధ్యధ్రధ్లధ్వధ్శధ్షధ్సధ్హధ్ళధ్క్షధ్ఱ
న్కన్ఖన్గన్ఘన్ఙన్చన్ఛన్జన్ఝన్ఞన్టన్ఠన్డన్ఢన్ణన్తన్థన్దన్ధన్నన్పన్ఫన్బన్భన్మన్యన్రన్లన్వన్శన్షన్సన్హన్ళన్క్షన్ఱ
ప్కప్ఖప్గప్ఘప్ఙప్చప్ఛప్జప్ఝప్ఞప్టప్ఠప్డప్ఢప్ణప్తప్థప్దప్ధప్నప్పప్ఫప్బప్భప్మప్యప్రప్లప్వప్శప్షప్సప్హప్ళప్క్షప్ఱ
ఫ్కఫ్ఖఫ్గఫ్ఘఫ్ఙఫ్చఫ్ఛఫ్జఫ్ఝఫ్ఞఫ్టఫ్ఠఫ్డఫ్ఢఫ్ణఫ్తఫ్థఫ్దఫ్ధఫ్నఫ్పఫ్ఫఫ్బఫ్భఫ్మఫ్యఫ్రఫ్లఫ్వఫ్శఫ్షఫ్సఫ్హఫ్ళఫ్క్షఫ్ఱ
బ్కబ్ఖబ్గబ్ఘబ్ఙబ్చబ్ఛబ్జబ్ఝబ్ఞబ్టబ్ఠబ్డబ్ఢబ్ణబ్తబ్థబ్దబ్ధబ్నబ్పబ్ఫబ్బబ్భబ్మబ్యబ్రబ్లబ్వబ్శబ్షబ్సబ్హబ్ళబ్క్షబ్ఱ
భ్కభ్ఖభ్గభ్ఘభ్ఙభ్చభ్ఛభ్జభ్ఝభ్ఞభ్టభ్ఠభ్డభ్ఢభ్ణభ్తభ్థభ్దభ్ధభ్నభ్పభ్ఫభ్బభ్భభ్మభ్యభ్రభ్లభ్వభ్శభ్షభ్సభ్హభ్ళభ్క్షభ్ఱ
మ్కమ్ఖమ్గమ్ఘమ్ఙమ్చమ్ఛమ్జమ్ఝమ్ఞమ్టమ్ఠమ్డమ్ఢమ్ణమ్తమ్థమ్దమ్ధమ్నమ్పమ్ఫమ్బమ్భమ్మమ్యమ్రమ్లమ్వమ్శమ్షమ్సమ్హమ్ళమ్క్షమ్ఱ
య్కయ్ఖయ్గయ్ఘయ్ఙయ్చయ్ఛయ్జయ్ఝయ్ఞయ్టయ్ఠయ్డయ్ఢయ్ణయ్తయ్థయ్దయ్ధయ్నయ్పయ్ఫయ్బయ్భయ్మయ్యయ్రయ్లయ్వయ్శయ్షయ్సయ్హయ్ళయ్క్షయ్ఱ
ర్కర్ఖర్గర్ఘర్ఙర్చర్ఛర్జర్ఝర్ఞర్టర్ఠర్డర్ఢర్ణర్తర్థర్దర్ధర్నర్పర్ఫర్బర్భర్మర్యర్రర్లర్వర్శర్షర్సర్హర్ళర్క్షర్ఱ
ల్కల్ఖల్గల్ఘల్ఙల్చల్ఛల్జల్ఝల్ఞల్టల్ఠల్డల్ఢల్ణల్తల్థల్దల్ధల్నల్పల్ఫల్బల్భల్మల్యల్రల్లల్వల్శల్షల్సల్హల్ళల్క్షల్ఱ
వ్కవ్ఖవ్గవ్ఘవ్ఙవ్చవ్ఛవ్జవ్ఝవ్ఞవ్టవ్ఠవ్డవ్ఢవ్ణవ్తవ్థవ్దవ్ధవ్నవ్పవ్ఫవ్బవ్భవ్మవ్యవ్రవ్లవ్వవ్శవ్షవ్సవ్హవ్ళవ్క్షవ్ఱ
శ్కశ్ఖశ్గశ్ఘశ్ఙశ్చశ్ఛశ్జశ్ఝశ్ఞశ్టశ్ఠశ్డశ్ఢశ్ణశ్తశ్థశ్దశ్ధశ్నశ్పశ్ఫశ్బశ్భశ్మశ్యశ్రశ్లశ్వశ్శశ్షశ్సశ్హశ్ళశ్క్షశ్ఱ
ష్కష్ఖష్గష్ఘష్ఙష్చష్ఛష్జష్ఝష్ఞష్టష్ఠష్డష్ఢష్ణష్తష్థష్దష్ధష్నష్పష్ఫష్బష్భష్మష్యష్రష్లష్వష్శష్షష్సష్హష్ళష్క్షష్ఱ
స్కస్ఖస్గస్ఘస్ఙస్చస్ఛస్జస్ఝస్ఞస్టస్ఠస్డస్ఢస్ణస్తస్థస్దస్ధస్నస్పస్ఫస్బస్భస్మస్యస్రస్లస్వస్శస్షస్సస్హస్ళస్క్షస్ఱ
హ్కహ్ఖహ్గహ్ఘహ్ఙహ్చహ్ఛహ్జహ్ఝహ్ఞహ్టహ్ఠహ్డహ్ఢహ్ణహ్తహ్థహ్దహ్ధహ్నహ్పహ్ఫహ్బహ్భహ్మహ్యహ్రహ్లహ్వహ్శహ్షహ్సహ్హహ్ళహ్క్షహ్ఱ
ళ్కళ్ఖళ్గళ్ఘళ్ఙళ్చళ్ఛళ్జళ్ఝళ్ఞళ్టళ్ఠళ్డళ్ఢళ్ణళ్తళ్థళ్దళ్ధళ్నళ్పళ్ఫళ్బళ్భళ్మళ్యళ్రళ్లళ్వళ్శళ్షళ్సళ్హళ్ళళ్క్షళ్ఱ
క్షక్ష్కక్ష్ఖక్ష్గక్ష్ఘక్ష్ఙక్ష్చక్ష్ఛక్ష్జక్ష్ఝక్ష్ఞక్ష్టక్ష్ఠక్ష్డక్ష్ఢక్ష్ణక్ష్తక్ష్థక్ష్దక్ష్ధక్ష్నక్ష్పక్ష్ఫక్ష్బక్ష్భక్ష్మక్ష్యక్ష్రక్ష్లక్ష్వక్ష్శక్ష్షక్ష్సక్ష్హక్ష్ళక్ష్క్షక్ష్ఱ
ఱ్కఱ్ఖఱ్గఱ్ఘఱ్ఙఱ్చఱ్ఛఱ్జఱ్ఝఱ్ఞఱ్టఱ్ఠఱ్డఱ్ఢఱ్ణఱ్తఱ్థఱ్దఱ్ధఱ్నఱ్పఱ్ఫఱ్బఱ్భఱ్మఱ్యఱ్రఱ్లఱ్వఱ్శఱ్షఱ్సఱ్హఱ్ళఱ్క్షఱ్ఱ

Consonant + Vowel Ligatures[edit]

అఁఅంఅఃNo Vowel
కాకికీకుకూకృకౄకౢకౣకెకేకైకొకోకౌకఁకంకఃక్
ఖాఖిఖీఖుఖూఖృఖౄఖౢఖౣఖెఖేఖైఖొఖోఖౌఖఁఖంఖఃఖ్
గాగిగీగుగూగృగౄగౢగౣగెగేగైగొగోగౌగఁగంగఃగ్
ఘాఘిఘీఘుఘూఘృఘౄఘౢఘౣఘెఘేఘైఘొఘోఘౌఘఁఘంఘఃఘ్
ఙాఙిఙీఙుఙూఙృఙౄఙౢఙౣఙెఙేఙైఙొఙోఙౌఙఁఙంఙఃఙ్
చాచిచీచుచూచృచౄచౢచౣచెచేచైచొచోచౌచఁచంచఃచ్
ఛాఛిఛీఛుఛూఛృఛౄఛౢఛౣఛెఛేఛైఛొఛోఛౌఛఁఛంఛఃఛ్
జాజిజీజుజూజృజౄజౢజౣజెజేజైజొజోజౌజఁజంజఃజ్
ఝాఝిఝీఝుఝూఝృఝౄఝౢఝౣఝెఝేఝైఝొఝోఝౌఝఁఝంఝఃఝ్
ఞాఞిఞీఞుఞూఞృఞౄఞౢఞౣఞెఞేఞైఞొఞోఞౌఞఁఞంఞఃఞ్
టాటిటీటుటూటృటౄటౢటౣటెటేటైటొటోటౌటఁటంటఃట్
ఠాఠిఠీఠుఠూఠృఠౄఠౢఠౣఠెఠేఠైఠొఠోఠౌఠఁఠంఠఃఠ్
డాడిడీడుడూడృడౄడౢడౣడెడేడైడొడోడౌడఁడండఃడ్
ఢాఢిఢీఢుఢూఢృఢౄఢౢఢౣఢెఢేఢైఢొఢోఢౌఢఁఢంఢఃఢ్
ణాణిణీణుణూణృణౄణౢణౣణెణేణైణొణోణౌణఁణంణఃణ్
తాతితీతుతూతృతౄతౢతౣతెతేతైతొతోతౌతఁతంతఃత్
థాథిథీథుథూథృథౄథౢథౣథెథేథైథొథోథౌథఁథంథఃథ్
దాదిదీదుదూదృదౄదౢదౣదెదేదైదొదోదౌదఁదందఃద్
ధాధిధీధుధూధృధౄధౢధౣధెధేధైధొధోధౌధఁధంధఃధ్
నానినీనునూనృనౄనౢనౣనెనేనైనొనోనౌనఁనంనఃన్
పాపిపీపుపూపృపౄపౢపౣపెపేపైపొపోపౌపఁపంపఃప్
ఫాఫిఫీఫుఫూఫృఫౄఫౢఫౣఫెఫేఫైఫొఫోఫౌఫఁఫంఫఃఫ్
బాబిబీబుబూబృబౄబౢబౣబెబేబైబొబోబౌబఁబంబఃబ్
భాభిభీభుభూభృభౄభౢభౣభెభేభైభొభోభౌభఁభంభఃభ్
మామిమీముమూమృమౄమౢమౣమెమేమైమొమోమౌమఁమంమఃమ్
యాయియీయుయూయృయౄయౢయౣయెయేయైయొయోయౌయఁయంయఃయ్
రారిరీరురూరృరౄరౢరౣరెరేరైరొరోరౌరఁరంరఃర్
లాలిలీలులూలృలౄలౢలౣలెలేలైలొలోలౌలఁలంలఃల్
వావివీవువూవృవౄవౢవౣవెవేవైవొవోవౌవఁవంవఃవ్
శాశిశీశుశూశృశౄశౢశౣశెశేశైశొశోశౌశఁశంశఃశ్
షాషిషీషుషూషృషౄషౢషౣషెషేషైషొషోషౌషఁషంషఃష్
సాసిసీసుసూసృసౄసౢసౣసెసేసైసొసోసౌసఁసంసఃస్
హాహిహీహుహూహృహౄహౢహౣహెహేహైహొహోహౌహఁహంహఃహ్
ళాళిళీళుళూళృళౄళౢళౣళెళేళైళొళోళౌళఁళంళఃళ్
క్షక్షాక్షిక్షీక్షుక్షూక్షృక్షౄక్షౢక్షౣక్షెక్షేక్షైక్షొక్షోక్షౌక్షఁక్షంక్షఃక్ష్
ఱాఱిఱీఱుఱూఱృఱౄఱౢఱౣఱెఱేఱైఱొఱోఱౌఱఁఱంఱఃఱ్

Numerals[edit]

0123456789
04142434016116216316

NOTE: ౹, ౺, and ౻ are used also for ​164, ​264, ​364, ​11024, etc. and ౼, ౽, and ౾ are also used for ​1256, ​2256, ​3256, ​14096, etc.[14]

Unicode[edit]

Main article: Telugu (Unicode block)

Telugu script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Telugu is U+0C00–U+0C7F:

Telugu[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+0C0x
U+0C1x
U+0C2x
U+0C3xి
U+0C4x
U+0C5x
U+0C6x
U+0C7x౿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

In contrast to a syllabic script such as katakana, where one Unicode code point represents the glyph for one syllable, Telugu combines multiple code points to generate the glyph for one syllable, using complex font rendering rules.[15][16]

iOS character crash bug[edit]

On February 12, 2018 a bug in the iOS operating system was reported that caused iOS devices to crash if a particular Telugu character is displayed.[17][18] The character is a combination of the characters "జ", "్", "ఞ" and "ా" which looks combined like this "జ్ఞా". Apple confirmed a fix for iOS 11.3 and macOS 10.13.4.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Campbell, George. "Concise Compendium of the World's Languages". Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  2. ^Antiquity of Telugu language and script: http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/stories/2007122054820600.htm
  3. ^Ananda Buddha Vihara
  4. ^The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India-【佛学研究网】 佛教文化网 中国佛教网 中国佛学网 佛教信息网 佛教研究 佛学讲座 禅学讲座 吴言生说禅
  5. ^The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems by Florian Coulmas, p. 228
  6. ^Murthy, K.N.; Rao, G.U. "4.5 Telugu Script"(PDF). 
  7. ^Indiain Epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages, by Richard Solomon, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.40, ISBN 0-19-509984-2
  8. ^Indian Epigraphy by Dineschandra Sircar, Motilal Banarsidass, 1996, p.46, ISBN 81-208-1166-6
  9. ^The Dravidian Languages by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, 2003, Cambridge University Press, pp.78-79, ISBN 0-521-77111-0
  10. ^Comparative Dravidian linguistics: Current perspectives by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-824122-4
  11. ^K. iRaghunath Bhat, http://ignca.gov.in/nl001809.htm
  12. ^Al-biruni. English translation of 'Kitab-ul Hind'. New Delhi: National Book Trust. 
  13. ^"Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu", Page 127 (In Telugu).
  14. ^Nāgārjuna Venna. "Telugu Measures and Arithmetic Marks"(PDF). JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3156. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved July 29, 2012. 
  15. ^"Developing OpenType Fonts for Telugu Script". February 8, 2018. 
  16. ^"Unicode 4.0.0: South Asian Scripts"(PDF). 
  17. ^"rdar://37458268: iOS and Mac OS System can't render symbol and has crashed". www.openradar.me. Retrieved 2018-03-12. 
  18. ^"If you receive this message on your iPhone, delete it immediately". The Independent. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  19. ^"Apple to Fix Telugu Character Bug Causing Devices to Crash in Minor iOS Update". Retrieved 2018-03-12. 

External links[edit]

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